Working will appear yellow while triangles of


Working on nano scale
is so unique and beneficial as one material’s structure and properties can
differ significantly from its form in bulk to its form on the a nanoscale. An
example of this can be seen through process in which stained glass is made. For
example a nano particle of gold is no longer gold but a vibrant ruby hue due to
the increase in colours absorbed by particles at that size. The shape and
structure of silver also changes what colours are reflected at this size too,
as a nanoparticle of silver shaped as a rod will appear yellow while triangles
of this size appear green


Targeted cancer therapy using nanotechnology
through nanoparticles

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Cancer is the
second largest cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. Cancer is caused
by poor apoptosis (programmed cell death) which in turn causes the excess
growth of cells to develop into a tumour. There are many types of ways in which
targeted cell therapy occurs, whether it be through ‘nano bees’ or chemically
modified nanoparticles. The nanoparticle way of targeted cancer therapy is
formed when a solution of drug and polymer molecules is mixed into rapidly
stirred water. This causes the solution to turn into a nanoparticle through the
hydrophobic parts facing inwards whilst the hydrophilic part faces outward. This
nanoparticle can be modified by adding different cancer targeting ligands such
as antibodies or chemotherapy drugs.


How does the nano-particle reach the cancerous cell


These particles
are inserted straight to the blood stream through a syringe and bind directly to
cancer cells through specially customised receptors. Cancer cells have a
distinct chemical makeup which helps these nanoparticles to reach the cancer
cell.  These receptors allow the cell to intake
these particle, thus allowing thousands inside a single cancer cell. Once
inside, the nanoparticles merge and form lysosomes, the digestive organelle of a
cell. The outer layer of the nanoparticle dissolves and highly toxic
chemotherapy can be released directly and safely inside the cancer cell.


Advantages of using nanotechnology to treat cancer

The advantage of
this type of cancer treatment (targeted cell therapy), is that this allows the
drugs to go straight to the tumour and only bind to cancerous cells. Unlike
current chemotherapy where cancer cell deaths are equal to healthy cell deaths which
limits the amount of chemotherapy that can be delved to the body at one time. This
loss of healthy cells can be seen through the loss of hair of cancer patients
during chemotherapy as the treatment does not go directly to the tumorous area but
also to the healthy hair Targeted cancer therapy allows a large amount of chemo
to be administered without any internal effect in the body, other than the
gradual elimination of the tumour.