When from the need to record events and

When the child starts to gain language? He
starts earlier than most of us think  in
his mother’s womb where he gets acquainted and be familiar with the rhythms of
the sounds around him  and ends much
later than we think too, because there is an end of sound and grammar
acquisition, but there is always some new world learn, therefore, language acquisition
is an ongoing process that accompanied us through the different stages of life.

scientists studied child languages acquisition and developed theories about
vocabulary, discourse, and grammar acquisition which is not just applicable
only to the English language, but also to other languages too. Literacy is not
restrained in its use in education or at work, it is part of our everyday life
in malls, restaurants, and even within the same families where literacy
practice is encouraged to help the child to grasp and understand the use of
language, to have confidence in delivering his messages properly in written and
spoken form, and to express his intentions and personality according to the
image he wants to deliver to the people around him.

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The orthography system of the English has
its downsides which cause some difficulties that the child needs to conquer in
order to have a good command over the language, but it has its upsides that
simplify the learning of this language. Currently, English is an international
language that is not just used by native speakers but also by non-native
speakers. Through the course of  learning
English there are identical or divergent problems that both speakers face
because two third of the children around the world are born in bilingual

The language is among the first inventions
of the human ,the studies of language and its wondering nature and complexity and
how the human being is able to perceive it is still contentious matter between scientists,
to understand language acquisition we have to take bites and pieces of this  jigsaw and try to bring those pieces together
to understand the bigger picture that make us unique.







Language is a
mean of communicating and expressing thoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken
language emerged first by making sounds that represent pictures which address
the auditory system, then letters and words that address the ophthalmic system
of the human being. The necessity of a writing system aroused from the need to
record events and communicate it with different people across the different
period of time. Different writing systems were developed across the word which
varies in its complexity.(Webster,1806) It relates, letters, syllables and sentence
to communicate language through speaking and writing.                                                                                                                           

The child starts learning language by imitation and exploring through babbling,
then he  uses a one word sentence, next a
two word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand his language
which is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writing skills too, so Speech is important in developing language skills,
improving vocabulary, receiving and producing language, furthermore,
understanding the connection between spoken and written language is essential
to organize and deliver the meaning of the message in a more efficient and
coherent way. (www.lob.ca).                    

Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and writing.”
(www.cambridgedictionary.org) or “The art of writing words with the proper
letter according to standard use “(www.meriam-wbster.com) .                                                                                                                              
 The English language is a
syllabic language and has its characteristics,: it consists of twenty-six
letters written from right to left in a sideways top to bottom. In a perfect
language every letter corresponds to a sound, however, some of them correspond
with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).The inconsistencies in the English
orthography made English a challenging language to acquire even for children
who are mono-lingual English native speakers, because many inconsistencies were
not just at the level of the letter and their presentation of more than one sound,
but also at the level of words too.         

the English language is a dialect; its position was elevated and became an
international language spoken by many tongues as a mother language or second or
foreign language, it came into contact with English like Latin, German, French,
Danish which brought many words into the language and changing other words
meaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has French and
Italian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello, now
it is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way. Building on
what is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English is
opaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the English
language causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes the
prediction of its pronunciation and writing very hard.(www,youtube.com)                                                         

There are other difficulties that face not just
children but adult too, for example some sounds stayed or disappeared ,the /f/
sound in words like: cough, enough, through or thought, other sounds were lost
at the beginning of the words in words like: wrong and knee, some letters
become silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology, Island. Daughter,
furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is pronounced
vegtable (www.thought.com), and some English letters give many different
pronunciations for the same letter for e.g. the words bear, ear, and heart.

The English orthography stabilized through the
centuries mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helped
in the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document the
pronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference between
different standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.com)
The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help to
differentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar, morphemes like
inflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived. (allington,mayor,2012)

Studies in various aspects of language led to
development of new methods of teaching the English language based on different
perspectives that was adopted by many institution and was pointed out for its
efficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,
which depends on the need and the necessity for the child to express his
emotions, needs, and his social identity in the society, and since spoken and
written language are closely related literacy becomes a part of a wider
communicative practice, using literacy in this sense involves exchanging
knowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers who have their essential
role in the way children acquire language, getting involved in these practices
that will help the children to gain literacy in a more effective way like storybook
reading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,
and literacy practice later in life.(www.2.sfasu.edu)

There are many other reasons that affect
how child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, the
society that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, the
level of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning,  social class, religion, the position of the
child in the family, and how he deals with the difficulties that he faces which
is part of the child psychology.

The literacy of the child at an early age
is strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to his
or her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that is
intertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices on
a frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction or
adventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring the
language in children is their relationship with their parents and their parent
beliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in school
that facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging children
in songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting with
children in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literary
texts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically to
learn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learning
and make it more appealing to him(www.2.sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed in
bilingual communities that is also affected by religion, social class, schools
parent’s educational level. the bilingual children may have in common impediments
with native speakers or different problems in learning English for example if
their other language is written from right to left, not from left to right they
may start writing English from right to left, or they may think about the
subject in one language and write it in another or they may code-switch during

Finally, every human being have the right to use the
language according to his or her need, so does the child who express his
thoughts, needs, and emotion to convey his persona and pursue what he really
want in life, and English being an international language today is used in many
disciplines of studies at the national and the international level so knowing
its diverse aspects the advantages and the disadvantages helped to create new
ways, books, programs that help the children to learn it more easily and leave
the obsolete methods of learning.            






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