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“We have moved away from studying human disease in humans. We all drank the kool-aid on that one, me included. The problem is that it hasn’t worked, and it’s time we stopped dancing around the problem. We need to refocus and adapt new methodologies for use in humans to understand disease biology in humans” said by Dr. Elias Zerhouni, former director of the National Institutes of Health (8 Expert Quotes Admitting That Testing on Animals Is Unreliable, page 2). According to statistics, an estimated 17 to 22 million animals are used each year in research, education and testing across the world. Of those animals, the majority of them are used right here in the United States alone. “According to studies the total amount of animals killed each year in research are 19,500,000 which is a lot of animals” (www.statisticbrain.com/animal-testing-statistics/. ) Those who are in favor of animal experimentation say “they’re taking animals lives to save humans”. But is it really necessary to put these animals through such torturous conditions and or painful experiments in the name of science? Animal experimentation, like many other issues going on today, creates difficulties to argue against and support. Therefore, all experts against animal testing should take the stand against animal testing and experimentation because some experts believe there are better alternatives and ways to scientifically advance ourselves rather than testing on animals.     “The majority of animal experiments do not contribute to improving human health, and the value of the role that animal experimentation plays in most medical advances is questionable.” (Medical Testing on Animals is Cruel and Unnecessary, page 1). Like many companies or laboratories many experiment on animals for human benefit, but many of these places don’t understand that some of the things they do to these animals will not help them in the long run for when they decide to start testing on humans. “Mice, rats, frogs, dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, monkeys, fish, and birds are all killed in laboratories for chemical, drug, food, and cosmetics testing; biology lessons; medical training; and curiosity-driven experimentation are all performed on these poor animals. Before their deaths, some are forced to inhale toxic fumes, others are immobilized in restraint devices for hours, some have holes drilled into their skulls, and others have their skin burned off or their spinal cords crushed.”  (Medical Testing on Animals Is Cruel and Unnecessary, page 1). But are these tests really necessary or worth it? Most people who vote for animal testing do so not because they’re “for” it but because they believe that it will advance or improve society’s human health. However, most don’t know that the animal experimentations that are done don’t even contribute towards the studies of human health, so the role that animal experimentation is playing is very questionable when applied to human health. There are many different factors on why testing on animals is very different from putting that science towards human health. “Diseases that are artificially induced in animals in the laboratory are never identical to those that occur naturally in human beings. Animal species differ from one another, and become even more unlikely that animal experiments will yield results that will be correctly interpreted and applied to the human condition in a meaningful way.” (Testing on Animals Is Cruel and Unnecessary, page 2). Although many may not know animal experimentations do not improve human health but we are also knowingly or unknowingly funding these experimentations that are happening. Funding them through taxes, charitable donations, and purchases of lottery tickets and consumer products. “Despite the vast amount of public funds being used to underwrite animal experimentation, it is nearly impossible for the public to obtain current and complete information regarding the animal experiments that are being carried out in their communities or funded with their tax dollars” (Testing on Animals Is Cruel and Unnecessary, page 2). In most cases many institutions that have open records usually withhold information about animal testing from the public. Of course with so much testing being done on animals, not all are in vain. Occasionally some experts believe that there are biomedical research extols benefits of animal research. The discovery of effective drugs has led to many successful developments of medical advances through animal experimentation. “Practically every present-day protocol for the prevention, control, cure of disease and relief of pain is based on knowledge obtained-directly or indirectly-through the research with animals” (Primary Source Document: Foundation for Biomedical Research Extols Benefits of Animal Research, page 1). While some extremists believe that the result of animal testing and experimentation can’t be applied to humans, other researchers and physicians agree that animal research provides invaluable and irreplaceable insight into human systems due to the fact of similarities of human systems and those of animals. “The essential need for animal research is recognized and supported by scientists, medical societies, and health agencies around the world. Further proof of its validity can be found in the vast body of Nobel Prize winning work in physiology and medicine that has been achieved with animal models ranging from fruit flies to zebrafish.” (Primary Source Document: Foundation for Biomedical Research Extols Benefits of Animal Research, page 1). There have been many cases that have benefitted humans. An example of this would be a new pill that was developed to fight measles. In this case, animals were experimented on until the pill was able to pass a key test that was needed. In Chicago, experts and scientists worked together to develop a pill that would help protect against the measles. Scientists injected ferrets with a virus almost like the measles to simulate measles in humans in order to study possible cures. “In the study, all of the ferrets were infected with canine distemper virus, which is closely related to measles. When treated with the drug, known as ERDRP-0519, the ferrets survived the normally fatal infection and levels of the virus were sharply reduced.” (Pill developed to fight measles passes key test in animals, page 1).  After the experiment was concluded, scientists explained how all of the animals in the study remained disease free after being treated. The animals ended  up developing an immunity to the virus, but yet clearly stated that it would take years of additional experiments to determine whether a measles pill will be able to be used with humans. For the ferrets were only the first animal to be tested as scientists must next prove the pills effectiveness in monkeys next. Although, as stated, scientists have proved that the pill worked with ferrets and soon would in monkeys, there will still need to be trials in humans to decide whether it may cause any side effects and prove to experts that it will be a safe and effective drug. Animals are living, breathing beings, and animal experimentation by its very nature takes a huge toll on an animal’s life. In most cases, researchers attempted to decrease pain and distress that animals experience while in these laboratories, but suffering is deep-rooted as the animals are put in sterile, isolated cages, forced to suffer disease and injury, or even killed at the end of the study. While the majority of scientists are well-intentioned and focused on finding cures for what ails humans, some biomedical researchers fail to recognize or appreciate that laboratory animals are not simply machines or little boxes that produce varieties of data, but are living breathing creatures who just want to be accepted and loved. Indeed, animals in laboratories are frequently treated as objects that can and will be manipulated at will, with little value for their lives beyond the cost of purchase and collection of data. “AAVS American Anti-Vivisection Society, however, believes that animals have the right not to be exploited for science, and we should not have to choose between helping humans and harming animals.” (Results from Research on Animals Are Not Valid When Applied to Humans, page 1). The claim that animals are necessary in biomedical research has been unsupported by scientists. For instance, there is a growing awareness of limitations in animal experiments and its inability to make reliable predictions about human health. In other occasions, medical discoveries took on delays as researchers and experts vainly wasted time, money, effort and animal’s lives trying to create animal models of a human disease. “A noteworthy example concerns the development of the polio vaccine. Researchers spent decades infecting nonhuman primates with the disease and conducting other animal experiments, but failed to produce a vaccine. The key event which led directly to the vaccine and a Nobel Prize occurred when researchers grew the virus in human cell cultures in vitro” (Results from Research on Animals Are Not Valid When Applied to Humans, page 3).  The above example solidifies the statement that animals make poor surrogates for humans, and the design of animal experiments is often inherently false. In this day and age, why would humans insist on experimenting on animals when they know the results will not immediately or ever be beneficial to the human population?  Animal experimentation is cruel and unnecessary. Is it really worth killing millions of animals each year?  As mentioned earlier, the majority of humans who support animal experimentation do so because of medical benefits.  In conclusion, if supporters knew what some experts believe – that testing and experimenting on animals is not worth the time, money, effort, and lives of animals for research and animal experimentation minimally advances medical research. Would the supporters become against animal experimentation?

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