Vaccines linked to an increased incidence of vaccine

Vaccines and Their Reputation in Society Annotated Bibliography

In a Canadian
society, vaccines are administered in Canada as early as birth and as late as older
adults. Vaccines are important to growth, physically and physiologically. Hesitancy
about vaccines in today’s Canadian society brings many questions about the
safety of the vaccine, whether it develops neurodevelopmental disorders, and
also questions the consistency, efficiency in younger children, and older
adults. Vaccines are commonly misunderstood in today’s society, where there is
misconceptions and unreliable research that is conducted and published.

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Williams
S. E. (2014) What are the factors that contribute to parental vaccine-hesitancy
and what can we do about it?. Human
Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 10(9), 2584-2596. https://doi.org/10.4161/hv.28596.

Parental
refusal of vaccination for their children is increasing. Researchers are
evaluating methods to address the concerns of vaccine-hesitant parents. The
researcher finds that increasing numbers of parents have concerns about
vaccination for their children. There has been a rise in vaccine exemptions for
kindergarteners, as well as an increase in the use of alternative vaccination
schedules. Unvaccinated children have been linked to an increased incidence of
vaccine preventable diseases and outbreaks of diseases internationally. Studies
of educational interventions to improve the attitudes of parents have been
reported. The interventions are educational, yet the decision-making process
for the vaccine hesitant families is very complex, and is influenced by many
factors, including influences such as social networks. Providing parents with
accurate information to counter their misbeliefs, additional interventions and
components are needed.

This
article will aid my thesis in supporting the fact that there is a decline in
the number of children who receive vaccines for preventable diseases. The fact
that parents are refusing to vaccinate their children due to social media
influences and not research conducted for the vaccines, is an obstacle health
care providers need to overcome to help the families understand why
vaccinations are used to prevent and protect against deadly diseases. Health
care providers need to communicate with their patients and other practitioners
as to why it is the best option moving forward for their children’s immunity.

Loubet. P., et al.,
(2014). Should expectant mothers be vaccinated against flu? A safety review. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 13(12),
1709-1720. https://doi.org/10.1517/14740338.2014.977252.

Pregnant
women have a higher risk of serious complications from influenza than
non-pregnant women, because of their *. The risk of influenza in pregnant women
has been noted during pandemic and inter-pandemic influenza seasons. The
researchers addressed the effectiveness of adjuvant and non-adjuvant pandemic
H1N1 vaccine. Vaccination against flu is recommended during all trimesters of a
women’s pregnancy, however remains low due to patient and healthcare providers’
concern about the safety, the authors have found. Patients and healthcare
providers are often hesitant due to the lack of research of vaccination in
pregnant women. The researchers have found no evidence of an increased risk for
an adverse event for mothers and fetus after vaccination against flu throughout
pregnancy. It is important for a mother to receive an influenza vaccination as
it protects both the mother and her infant against serious infectious diseases.

This
article will aid my thesis in supporting that vaccination for serious
influenzas, such as the H1N1 epidemic, is safe among mothers and their fetus.

This can support the claim that it is never too early to aid your child’s
immunity. The influenza vaccine for expectant mothers will prevent complications
during the pregnancy, especially during an outbreak such as the H1N1 influenza
experienced in 2014. This can give mothers confidence to carry on with their
day to day lives without worries that they will come into contact with the
influenza and fall seriously ill.

Gadad B.

S., et al., (2015) Administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines to infant
rhesus macaques does not result in austism-like behavior or neuropathology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112(40).

12498-12503. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1500968112.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a
complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Some research linked vaccine preservative,
ethyl mercury, exposure to ASD by receiving the measles, mumps or rubella
vaccine. The researchers studied infant rhesus macaques receiving thimerosal-containing
vaccines (TCVs) following the recommended vaccine schedules between 1990 and
2008, and they examined the behavior, and neuropathology of the macaques in the
three brain regions- cerebellum, hippocampus, and the amygdala-  that exhibit neuropathology in postmortem ASD
brains. The researchers found that no neuronal cellular or protein changes
occurred in the three brain regions following the vaccine schedules. Analysis
of social behavior in the macaques indicated that there were no significant
differences in negative behaviors in control and experimental groups.

This
article supports the fact that the preservative, ethyl mercury, found in mumps,
measles, and rubella vaccinations does not affect the neuropathology in
postmortem brains. ASD is commonly associated with neuronal cellular or protein
changes in the cerebellum, hippocampus, or amygdala. When incorrect research
surfaced that vaccines containing ethyl mercury caused ASD, many parents
decided not to have any more vaccinations administered to their children. Since
this research surfaced, many researchers have produced their own studies to
confirm or reject the hypothesis that this preservative ingredient in
vaccinations is the cause of ASD or not.

Effectiveness
in older adults.

Luzembourg, A. et. al., (2015). Phase III, randomized controlled trial in
girls 9-15 years old to evaluate lot consistency of a novel nine-valent
human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particle vaccine. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 11(6), 1306-1312. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2015.1009819

            The
authors of this study researched the 9-valent human papilliomavirus (HPV)
vaccine which addresses the 4 major types of HPV plus another five additional
oncogenic types for increased cervical cancer coverage, covered by the licensed
quadrivalent HPV vaccine also known
as GardasilÔ. A study in women aged 16-24 years old demonstrated
that the HPV vaccine is highly effective in preventing the HPV disease as well
as preventing cervical cancer. A phase III study was conducted to compare the
consistency among girls aged 9-15 years old. The study enrolled 1800 girls 9-15
years of age, 600 boys 9-15 years of age, as well as 400 women aged 16-26. The
study compares the immunogenicity at the first day and the 7th month
in girls versus young women, as well as boys versus young women. The girls aged
9-15 years were given a randomized lot of the three vaccine lots (1, 2, or 3),
and boys and women were all assigned with lot 1. A total of 1935 subjects
between girls, boys and women were randomized from different countries across
the world. The HPV was found to have consistent antibody response within the
body to the respective 9 vaccine HPV types.

This scholarly journal will aid my paper
by supporting the fact that vaccines are consistent, and can protect against
and treat separate diseases that relate to the disease it is originally curated
for. This article explains how the HPV vaccine protects against HPV as well as
cervical cancer. The success rate for this vaccine, supported by this article,
can help with my argument that vaccines are consistent with what they treat, as
well with how many people found success with this vaccine.

Blyth, C. C. et al., (2014). Effectiveness of
trivalent flu vaccine in healthy young children. Pediatrics, 133 (5). 10.1542/peds.2013-3707.

Effectiveness of flu vaccine in young
children

The effectiveness of the trivalent
influenza vaccination (TIV) in children <2 years was researched by the authors of this journal article. The Western Australian Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Study started in 2008 to evaluate the effectiveness of the TIV in children aged 6 to 59 months. Vaccination status prior to the study was determined by a questionnaire to parents and guardians, and was confirmed by the immunization register/vaccine providers. Two control groups were used to determine vaccine effectiveness: all influenza test-negative subjects and other-virus-detected subjects. Of the 2001 children enrolled in the study, influenza was identified in 389 children (20.4%). Another respiratory virus was identified in 1134 (59.6%) of children in the study. The vaccines effectiveness was 85.8% for children <2 years of age. This article can defend that the trivalent flu vaccine in healthy children is overall effective for children aged <2 years of age. There is not much research conducted for children <2 years of age, thus the research proves that the vaccine was overall effective for the children across countries, that face different environmental challenges in their daily lives. Although it is just a flu vaccine, that is not very popular among the population, this can prove and extrapolate that vaccinating children from early age aids in their immunity and to keep them healthy. Children are at greatest risk for hospitalization, mobidity and death, so influenza vaccination is the first step for prevention. Lal. H. et al., (2015).

Efficacy of an adjunvanted herpes zoster subunit in older adults. New England J Med, 372(22), 2087-2096. doi:
10.1056/NEJMoa1501184.

 

In
a previous phase 1-2 clinical trials researched by the authors concerning older
adults, aged 50 and over, a subunit vaccine containing varicella-zoster virus
glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system, also known as the HZ/su vaccine,
had an acceptable safety profile. The authors conducted a randomized study in
18 countries to evaluate the efficacy and safety of HZ/su in older adults
>50 years of age in groups of 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and >70. A total of
15,411 participants were evaluated, using the vaccine for 7698 participants and
a placebo for 7713 participants. The participants from both groups received two
intramuscular doses of the vaccine or the placebo two months apart. The
objective of the researchers was to assess the efficacy of the vaccine,
compared to the placebo, in reducing the risk of herpes zoster. During a follow
up over 3.2 years, herpes zoster was found in 6 participants who had the
vaccine, and 210 participants in the placebo group. The vaccine efficacy
against herpes zoster in older adults was 97.2% The HZ/su vaccine reduced the
risk of herpes zoster in adults 50 years of age or older. The proportions of
participants who experienced adverse events or death were similar in the two
groups.

This
research conducted by the authors supports the fact that as adults age their
immune system decreases and cannot fight off diseases as they could when they
were younger adults as they are more susceptible to illness and death. This
research shows that the placebo group had 35 times more participants who
suffered from herpes zoster than those who received the vaccine. It is
important for all ages to be vaccinated, however the efficiency of this
research was very high in the adults who were vaccinated. The vaccine aids in
protection against shingles, a leading problem in older adults. 

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