Understanding an exposure to millions of natural images

Understanding the world
in a single look is one of the most important achievements of the human brain,
it takes couple of milliseconds to recognize the category of an object or
environment, emphasizes an important role in moving forward in visual
recognition. One of the successful human visual
identification mechanisms, the ability to learn and remember different types of
places and samples by sampling the world several times per second, and
our neural architecture constantly registers new inputs even for a very short
time, reaching an exposure to millions of natural images within just a year.

People can recognize the scene during
their first optimization on that scene; for example, they can recognize that it
is a Mazar-e-Quaid, or a Mosque. A research has shown that viewers can
recognize a scene at over 80% accuracy after as little as 36 milliseconds of
uninterrupted processing time.

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It is important for us to
understand the idea of scene, because research has shown that the gist of a
scene uses our prior knowledge related with the scene’s category (e.g., that
Mazars have tombs, and people). This knowledge has a great impact on where we
focus; it may help us recognizing objects in the scene, and plays a major role
in identifying what information we remember from a scene. Such research can be
applied to designing artificial intelligence systems capable of recognizing the
categories of scenes.

Besides the rich variety of natural images,
one important property of the primate brain is its progressive association in
layers of increasing processing complexity, an architecture that has inspired
Convolutional Neural Networks or CNNs.

Convolutional Neural Networks are very similar to
ordinary Neural Networks; they are made up of neurons that have learnable
weights and biases. Each neuron receives some inputs, performs a dot product
and opens with an optional non-linear.

In machine learning, a convolutional neural network (CNN)
is a class of deep, moving-forward fake neural (Artificial Neural) systems
that has effectively been connected to breaking down visual imagery. CNNs
utilize a variety of multilayer encryption designed to require negligible
preprocessing. Convolutional networks were inspired by biological processes in which the connectivity pattern
between neurons is inspired by the organization of the
animal visual
cortex. CNNs use relatively
low pre-processing compared to other image classification algorithms. This means that the network filter learns
that the traditional algorithms were hand-engineered. This independence from prior knowledge and
human effort in feature design is a major advantage. CNNs also have
limitations, such as the absence of invariance to critical scaling. This
problem is particularly important in scene recognition, because of wider range
of scales and larger amount of objects per image. 


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