Understanding most water-poor countries. The agriculture land

  Understanding
Globalization (GSSC 1083)

Research Paper

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Name:
Yash Patel

Professor’s
name: Jamie Zarowitz

Date:
17th January

 

How has globalization impacted
water scarcity?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      “Based
on current population trends, 3.3 billion people, or more than half of the
human population, will be living in urban areas by next year. This number is
expected to increase to almost five billion by 2030” (Sierra K,2006). Can you imagine living in a world where the most abundant and
needed resource water was not available to you? This is the reality many people
around the world are facing right now. Globalization has brought people of
different cultures together and developed a new era in the economic prosperity.
However, globalization has some areas of concern, such as water scarcity,
climate change, water pollution, and deforestation. Economic growth, population shifts, and climate
change will contribute to severe shortage and degradation of global water supplies.
Water is critical for many businesses because all goods require water in their
production. As one of the world’s largest agricultural countries, China is
faced with serious water scarcity due to the high number of population growth
every year, while some regions of the world see danger through extensive
droughts or water diseases. Additionally, inability of powerful people has
brought rise in water privatization contracts between states and foreign investors.
(Murthy, 2015)

                                                            

As
an agricultural country, China needs more water resources to meet its local
needs of growing domestic consumption. China is confronting shortage of
water due to its fast advancement and its atmosphere. It’s a water shortage country as the per capita use of water resources
of China is only 2,300 cubic meters, which is one of the world’s 13 most
water-poor countries. The agriculture land use was reduced in 11 regions, of
which four were absolute water scarcity regions, two water scarcity regions,
and ?ve water relative rich regions. We can ?nd that the seven important crop
planting regions including Henan, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Sichuan, Anhui,
Hebei, and Jiangsu were water resource relative scarcity regions in year 2007.
(Zhang,2014).

 

Water
resources aren’t managed sustainably in many parts of world, lower groundwater
table lead to desertification, problem
of diffuse water pollution from agriculture. Unregulated use of water resources
has led to mining and forestry. According to the World Water Council, 1.1
billion people in the world do not have appropriate drinking water and
sanitation facilities, while 2.6 billion are without improved sanitation
facilities (WHO and UNICEF 2005), and over 5000 people die each day from water
related diseases, according to World Water Assessment Programme 2003. Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Mexico are getting depleted and Yemen
could run of water in next few years. “Taking
a shorter shower is not the answer” to the global problem, said Hoekstra, a
Dutch American Politician as one to four percent of person water footprint is
in home while twenty-five percent person water footprint is through meat consumption.
It takes fifteen thousand liters of water to make 1kg of beef. (Damian,2016).

 

Pacific
Basin regions, Latin America and the Asian have seen water privatization from a
long time although it increased from year 1997. Revenue can be generated from
sales and also promotes profits for new owners. Failure in privatization was
been in Bolivia and Cochabamba which became symbol of struggle in
globalization. Deregulation also impacted free trade and created environmental
problem, affected growth and rising of living. Weak national environmental policies
increase the concern. Due to debts payments on developing countries it encourages
to build more extractive industries to raise currency and these industries
often affect the quality of water. Not only from the extractive industries but
also byproducts from production of plastic, pesticides, pulp and detergents can
pose a water-quality and if it’s not managed properly it can cause increase in
toxic level in water which in the end will lead to human health hazard. In
water resources sector, water management issues are solved by some private
utility water headquarter miles away from the municipality they manage. If the
globalization continues at this paces, the problems addressed through
international management should focus more on how international trade affects
environment, how can we prevent it, how can business, governments and NGOs can
work together to protect water resources. (“Globalization and Water”, 2003).

 

Many
countries which ten years ago were spending very less money on water resources research
as to turn scientist to solve problem of fresh water are now spending quite
more.” China has seen a steady annual growth rate of
28%, while the water resources research output from the United States has risen
with only 11% a year” (Confronting the Water Crisis,2015). Rules are regulated
with appropriate use of groundwater and strict actions are taken if an industry
spills toxics in water by charging them hefty amount of money. Water privatization
which is an important issue should be undertaken with care as a failure in
privatization can impact lives of many people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CITATIONS

 Sierra, K.
(March 14, 2006). Making water available for all. Taipei Times. (January 11,
2008) http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2006/03/14/2003297311

 

Damian
Carrington.2016

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/feb/12/four-billion-people-face-severe-water-scarcity-new-research-finds

 

 Globalization and
Water.2003

Water: Science and Issues,

http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/globalization-and-water

 

Confronting the
Global Water Crisis Through Research,2015

Conclusion: Pg13,

https://www.elsevier.com/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/53082/Water-Resources_WP_lr.pdf

 

Academic Journal references

 

Zhang,
L. J., X. A. Yin, Y. Zhi, and Z. F. Yang. 2014.

Determination
of virtual water content of rice and spatial characteristics analysis in China.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18(6): 2103–2111

 

 Murthy, supra.2015 (122–23, 125)

Julien
Chaisse and Marine Polo, Globalization of Water Privatization: Ramifications of
Investor-State Disputes in the “Blue Gold” Economy

 

 

 

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