Tumor Germinal cell tumor of testis, Ovarian

Tumor marker

is abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts
of the body, Biomarker are
Measured and evaluated as indicator of normal biological process, pathogenic
process, or pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention, Characteristic
of Ideal biomarker expression should significantly increase in disease
condition  Readily quantifiable in
clinical sample It should be economically viable Tumor marker is a Biochemical
substances produced by cancer cell or by the healthy cell It’s a Substances  found at higher level than normal level  in cancerous condition, which differentiate
the normal cell from cancer cells  Tumor
marker seen in Blood circulation, Body
cavity fluids  Cell membrane ,Cell
cytoplasm Tumor marker  classification
Tumor Specific Antigens  Specific
for single individual tumor, present only in tumor cells Ex:CEA,CA19-9,CA125
Tumor-Associated Antigens are Found with different tumor of same tissue
type Present on tumor cells and some normal cells Expressed at abnormal
concentration when presence of cancer Ex: Prostate specific antigen, Beta HCG,AFP
L3,thryglobin ,Enzyme 1st group identified as a biomarker  Hormone used to detect and monitor the
cancer Onco-fetal protein AFP,CEA,PSA, using anti-sera against cancer tissue cell
surface antigen are CA 125,CA15-3,CA19-9 Blood group Ag using monoclonal
antibody detect cancer cell according to site tumor marker classification as Biochemical
/serological marker-detected in blood or body fluids, histochemical/ tissue
marker- in tissue by immunological test diagnostic marker, prognostic marker/
predictive marker, therapeutic marker clinical use Screening, diagnosis, prognostic predictor  clinical
staging of the cancerous condition
for monitoring during treatment early
not be very costly,sensitivity,specificity, accuracy, precision, simple to use CEA (carcino embryonic antigen)–Lung cancer,
breast cancer, Colorectal cancer, alfa feto protein used as marker for Hepato cellular carcinoma, Germ cell tumor, HCG(human chorionic gonodotrophin)hormone detect Germinal  cell tumor of 
testis, Ovarian adenocarcinoma, Hepatoma, chorio carcinoma, CA 125- Ovarian carcinoma, calcitonin for Medullary thyroid cancer, CA15-3/ CA27.29 used as tumor marker for  Breast cancer, Liver
cancer, colon cancer, ovarian endometrial cancer, Prostate specific antigen ia
marker for Prostate cancer, Thyroglobulin is for Thyroid cancer, 21-Gene signature(oncotype-Dx),70-Gene signature(mammaprint),Estrogen
receptor/ progesterone receptor detect  breast cancer, Cytokeratin  fragments21-1- Non small cell Lung
cancer,breast cancer, Insulin-Insulinoma(beta cell tumor),Cortisol/ACTH- Equine pars intermedia adenoma, adreno cortical tumor, Sex steroid
hormone- Adeno carcinoma, Methods
of detection of tumor marker are immunological Immuno histochemistry, Radioimmuno
assay,ELISA, Cytogenetic analysis
– Fluorescent insitu hybridization,Spectral karyotyping,Comparative genomic
hybridization, Genetic analysis,proteomics- Surface  enhanced laser desorption/ionization,
antibodies to a dye, The immunoreactivity
between the tissue specimens and antibodies can be visualized with the light
microscope, commonly used to characterize tumors of epithelial origin are
antibodies directed against the cytokeratin intermediate
filaments,Epithelium-Specific cytokeratins used as diagnostic markers that
detect change in cytokeratin expression as a consequence,Cytokeratin 6 is
present in all epithelial skin tumors Cytokeratin immunostaining – used to
detect micro-metastases in lymph nodes of dogs with mammary gland carcinoma,
Mesenchyme tumor markers are Vimentin
 for Non-muscle Sarcomas,rhabdomyosarcomas
and Desmin for canine
leiomyomas, Leiomyosarcomas,Canine hemangiopericytoma.Fibrillary Acid Protein used as marker for glioblastoma,Proliferation
marker are Ki-67- prognostic
significance in canine mammary gland tumors, soft tissue sarcomas  and
melanoma, During interphase 
the ki-67 antigen detected  with
in the cell nucleus. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen- estimate tumor proliferation rate. CYTOGENETICS  is a structural and numerical abnormalities of
chromosomes G-banded chromosomes,other cytogenetic banding techniques,
molecular cytogenetics: fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),comparative
genomic hybridization (CGH),proteomics,genomics,metabolomics- fucosylated
proteins, including CD44 and E-selectin-elevated in dogs with lymphoma With the
completion of the sequencing of the canine genome, a microarray is being
developed to study the changes in tumor gene expression in canine
tumors.Methods of discovery:genomic approach:Northern blot-RNA sequencing,Gene
expression technique,DNA micro array.Proteomics approach:Tissue micro array,Antibody
array,2D PAGE. Metabolomics  approach: Analyse
ll the metabolites in a biological sample. Lipidomics approach:lipids have
unique physical property,identify or quantify lipid metabolites in  a sample, lipid profiling include mass
spectrometry, chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance.

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