This APA 1994 Attention deficit / Hyperactivity disorder

This
article focuses on the problems that children found with ADHD (Attention
Deficit hyperactive disorder) face daily. Brought to the forefront is the
pragmatic deficits and social impairment in children with diagnosed ADHD.
According to the Medical Dictionary ADHA is defined as, a childhood mental disorder
onset before 7 years of age and involving impaired or diminished attention,
impulsivity, and hyperactivity. While according to APA  1994 Attention deficit / Hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) is a complexed neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by
developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and hyperactivity /
impulsivity. Pragmatic defects refer to one’s social language it involves how
and what we say in addition to our body language when communicating with others.

 Individuals diagnosis with ADHD often show
signs of aggression, academic failure in addition to interpersonal
difficulties. Stemming from the interpersonal related problems, it has been
reported by (Barkley, DuPaul, & McMurray, 1990; Landau, Milich, & Diener,
1998) that 52-82% of children diagnosed with ADHD have showed signs of social problem
some as early as preschool and others later in life. These social in
capabilities according to Greene, Biederman, Faraone, Sienna, & Garcia-Jetton,
1997; Klein & Mannuzza, 1991 affect the child significantly leading to negative
long-term outcomes such as substance abuse, academic problems leading school
drops out in addition to delinquency which and affect the individual’s adult life
as well. Yet another problem individuals with ADHA face is language problems which
contributes highly to the social problems they face. Findings by Cohen et al.,
2000; Tirosh & Cohen, 1998). Has stated that nearly have of the children diagnosed
with ADHA also face language impairment.

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In
this article, aim of the experiment was to the aim was to systematically
evaluate pragmatic language abilities using an array of measures to fully characterize
the nature of pragmatic deficits and to examine the degree to which pragmatic
deficits affect social skills in children with ADHD. From this heading two hypothesis
was made to tested and proved they (a) are as compared with their typically developing
peers, children with ADHD will show pragmatic deficits that will be evident
over and above receptive and expressive language problems; and (b) pragmatic
deficits will account for a significant portion of the variance in social
impairment in children with ADHD, such that the relation between ADHD and
social impairment will be reduced when controlled for pragmatic deficits.

 

Content

 

The
participants used in the study was selected from a longitudinal study of
children with ADHA. From this sample person that was diagnoses with ASD (Arterial
Septer Defect) neurological disorder, severe receptive and/or expressive
language delays and have a IQ lower than 80 were excluded from this study.
Another importance criteria that was meet by the participant was there proficiency
in the English language and was attend school. When the criteria were met a total
of 63childern between the ages of 7 – 11.

 Within this sample of participants 38 children
were Caucasian, 7 were African American, 8 were Asian, and 10 were of mixed
descent; 18 children were Hispanic from these 8 children met criteria for
Predominantly Inattentive type, 1 for Predominantly Hyperactive Impulsive type,
and 19 for Combined type.  Parents of the
children were given evaluation to asses their child. A total of 10 evaluation were
given to the parent to assess their child. The evaluations were (a) Child
autism rating scale (b) Kiddie-schedule for affective disorders and
schizophrenia, present and lifetime version (c) Pragmatic language. (d) Children’s
communicative checklist, second edition (e) Comprehensive assessment of spoken
language (f) Test of pragmatic language, second edition (g) Narrative
assessment profile: discourse analysis (NAP; Bliss, McCabe & Miranda, 1998)
(h) Deriving pragmatic language constructs. (I) General language. Clinical
evaluation of language fundamentals, fourth edition (CELF-4; Semel, Wiig &
Secord, 2003) (j) Social skills. Social skills improvement system (SSIS;
Gresham & Elliott, 2008).  These
evaluations were used for parents to score their children’s pragmatic and
social skills.

After
completion of the evaluations, the hypothesis was tested. hypothesis (a), children
with ADHD will show pragmatic deficits that will be evident over and above receptive
and expressive language problems was tested using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) comparing the ADHD and TD groups on the three pragmatic language constructs
communicative intentions, nonverbal rules of conversation and verbal rules of conversation.
The second hypothesis pragmatic deficits will account for a
significant portion of the variance in social impairment in children with ADHD,
such that the relation between ADHD and social impairment will be reduced when controlled
for pragmatic deficits was tested using a practical mediation model ,using two
parts to complete the calculation.

 

Conclusion

This
case study concluded that children diagnosed with ADHD is less skilled compared
to their peers in relation to pragmatic language. In addition to this,
pragmatic language deficits as measured by parent ratings of discourse management
mediated the social impairment seen in ADHD.

 

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