Thermography surface of an object. Infrared thermography

       Thermography is a non-contact,
non-destructive test method that utilizes a thermal imager to detect, display
and record thermal patterns and temperatures across the surface of an object.
Infrared thermography may be applied to any situation where knowledge of
thermal profiles and temperatures will provide meaningful data about a system,
object or process.

Since infrared
radiation is emitted by all objects based on their temperatures, according to
the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one’s
environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation
emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore thermography allows
one to see variation in temperature.

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Thermography is
widely used in industry for predictive maintenance, condition assessment,
quality assurance and forensic investigations of electrical, mechanical and
structural systems.

In this context,
we are mainly concentrating on the medical applications of Thermography.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Chapter                      Title                                                                                        Page No.                                                       

1.                     INTRODUCTION                                                                                    1

2.                     LITERATURE
REVIEW                                                                        2         

3                      PHYSICS
OF THERMOGRAPHY                                                        4  

                        3.1       Types of Thermography                                                               6

4.                     MEDICAL THERMOGRAPHY                                                           7

                        4.1      
Advantages                                                                                    
8

                        4.2        Limitations                                                                                     8

5                      THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERAS                                                           9

                        5.1      
Factors affecting Thermal Examination                                     9                  

6                      APPLICATIONS OF
THERMOGRAPHY IN MEDICAL FIELD   11 

                        CONCLUSION                                                                                       
15

                        REFERENCES                                                                                       
16

                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                               

 

         

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

Figure
No                               Title                                                                            Page No

 1.1                  Thermography
image of hands                                                            1                                               

 3.1                  Infrared spectrum                                                                                
4

 3.2                  Blackbody temperature
variation                                                      
6

 4.1                  Block diagram of the IR
Thermography                                            7

 4.2                  Temperature distribution
scale                                                          
8

 5.1                  Thermographic Camera                                                                      10

 5.2                  Thermal Image capture process                                                        
10

 6.1                  Breast thermography                                                        
                  11

 6.2                  Complete body thermogram                                                               14

 

 

 

                       

 

        Thermography is a non-contact,
non-destructive test method that utilizes a thermal imager to detect, display
and record thermal patterns and temperatures across the surface of an object.
Infrared thermography may be applied to any situation where knowledge of
thermal profiles and temperatures will provide meaningful data about a system,
object or process.

Since infrared
radiation is emitted by all objects based on their temperatures, according to
the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one’s
environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation
emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore thermography allows
one to see variation in temperature.

Thermography is
widely used in industry for predictive maintenance, condition assessment,
quality assurance and forensic investigations of electrical, mechanical and
structural systems.

In this context,
we are mainly concentrating on the medical applications of Thermography.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Chapter                      Title                                                                                        Page No.                                                       

1.                     INTRODUCTION                                                                                    1

2.                     LITERATURE
REVIEW                                                                        2         

3                      PHYSICS
OF THERMOGRAPHY                                                        4  

                        3.1       Types of Thermography                                                               6

4.                     MEDICAL THERMOGRAPHY                                                           7

                        4.1      
Advantages                                                                                    
8

                        4.2        Limitations                                                                                     8

5                      THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERAS                                                           9

                        5.1      
Factors affecting Thermal Examination                                     9                  

6                      APPLICATIONS OF
THERMOGRAPHY IN MEDICAL FIELD   11 

                        CONCLUSION                                                                                       
15

                        REFERENCES                                                                                       
16

                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                               

 

         

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

Figure
No                               Title                                                                            Page No

 1.1                  Thermography
image of hands                                                            1                                               

 3.1                  Infrared spectrum                                                                                
4

 3.2                  Blackbody temperature
variation                                                      
6

 4.1                  Block diagram of the IR
Thermography                                            7

 4.2                  Temperature distribution
scale                                                          
8

 5.1                  Thermographic Camera                                                                      10

 5.2                  Thermal Image capture process                                                        
10

 6.1                  Breast thermography                                                        
                  11

 6.2                  Complete body thermogram                                                               14

 

 

 

          Thermography is a non-contact,
non-destructive test method that utilizes a thermal imager to detect, display
and record thermal patterns and temperatures across the surface of an object.
Infrared thermography may be applied to any situation where knowledge of
thermal profiles and temperatures will provide meaningful data about a system,
object or process.

Since infrared
radiation is emitted by all objects based on their temperatures, according to
the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one’s
environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation
emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore thermography allows
one to see variation in temperature.

Thermography is
widely used in industry for predictive maintenance, condition assessment,
quality assurance and forensic investigations of electrical, mechanical and
structural systems.

In this context,
we are mainly concentrating on the medical applications of Thermography.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Chapter                      Title                                                                                        Page No.                                                       

1.                     INTRODUCTION                                                                                    1

2.                     LITERATURE
REVIEW                                                                        2         

3                      PHYSICS
OF THERMOGRAPHY                                                        4  

                        3.1       Types of Thermography                                                               6

4.                     MEDICAL THERMOGRAPHY                                                           7

                        4.1      
Advantages                                                                                    
8

                        4.2        Limitations                                                                                     8

5                      THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERAS                                                           9

                        5.1      
Factors affecting Thermal Examination                                     9                  

6                      APPLICATIONS OF
THERMOGRAPHY IN MEDICAL FIELD   11 

                        CONCLUSION                                                                                       
15

                        REFERENCES                                                                                       
16

                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                               

 

         

LIST OF FIGURES

 

 

Figure
No                               Title                                                                            Page No

 1.1                  Thermography
image of hands                                                            1                                               

 3.1                  Infrared spectrum                                                                                
4

 3.2                  Blackbody temperature
variation                                                      
6

 4.1                  Block diagram of the IR
Thermography                                            7

 4.2                  Temperature distribution
scale                                                          
8

 5.1                  Thermographic Camera                                                                      10

 5.2                  Thermal Image capture process                                                        
10

 6.1                  Breast thermography                                                        
                  11

 6.2                  Complete body thermogram                                                               14

 

 

 

                       

 

                      

 

 MRI stands for
magnetic resonance imaging. It is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses a
magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of your body’s
internal organs and tissues. An MRI machine can also produce three-dimensional
images that may be viewed from several different angles. The unit of
measurement used to quantify the strength of a magnetic field in an MRI machine
is called a Tesla (T). Most MRI
scanners operate at a strength of 1.5 Tesla. A 3 Tesla MRI, however, operates at twice the
normal strength, providing a greater signal-to-noise ratio, which is a major
determinant in generating the highest quality image. The strength of a 3
Tesla MRI yields myriad benefits for radiologists and their patients.Infrared thermography is a non-contact imaging technique for visualising infrared radiation. The IR radiation emitted from an object has different intensity depending on its surface temperature. An IR camera detector senses the IR radiation and electronically displays a visual image of the temperatures – a thermal image or thermogram. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one’s environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermography allows one to see variations in temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds.  There are three types of thermography: liquid crystal thermography (LCT), infrared thermography (IRT) and microwave thermography (MWT). The non-invasive and high resolution characteristics of the thermographic systems make them valuable diagnostic as well as therapeutic aids. The infrared ray is a kind of electromagnetic wave with a frequency higher than the radio frequencies and lower than visible light frequencies.  The infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum is usually taken as 0.77 and 100 ?m for convenience it is often split into near infrared (0.77 to 1.5?m), middle infrared (1.5 to 6?m) and far infra (60-40?m) and far far infrared (40 to 100?m) Infrared rays are radiated spontaneously by all objects having a temperature above absolute zero (459.67?).Black body radiation law is the actual principle which works on thermography. A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation. Because of this perfect absorptivity at all wavelengths, a black body is also the best possible emitter of thermal radiation, which it radiates incandescently in a characteristic, continuous spectrum that depends on the body’s temperature The infrared ray is a kind of electromagnetic wave with a frequency higher than the radio frequencies and lower than visible light frequencies.  The infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum is usually taken as 0.77 and 100 ?m for convenience it is often split into near infrared (0.77 to 1.5?m), middle infrared (1.5 to 6?m) and far infra (60-40?m) and far far infrared (40 to 100?m) Infrared rays are radiated spontaneously by all objects having a temperature above absolute zero (459.67?).Black body radiation law is the actual principle which works on thermography. A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation. Because of this perfect absorptivity at all wavelengths, a black body is also the best possible emitter of thermal radiation, which it radiates incandescently in a characteristic, continuous spectrum that depends on the body’s temperatureThe basic principle that enables MR spectroscopy (MRS)
is the distribution of electrons around an atom cause nuclei in different
molecules to experience a slightly different magnetic field. This results in
slightly different resonant frequencies, which in turn return a slightly
different signal. The technique is identical to that of Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance (NMR) as used in analytical chemistry.

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), also known
as nuclear
magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, is a non-invasive, ionizing-radiation-free analytical
technique that has been used to study metabolic changes in brain tumors, strokes, seizure
disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, depression and other diseases affecting the brain. It has
also been used to study the metabolism of other organs such as muscles. In the case of muscles, NMR is used to measure
the lipids content (IMCL). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is an analytical technique
that can be used to complement the more common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
in the characterization of tissue. Both techniques typically acquire signal
from hydrogen protons (other endogenous nuclei such as those of Carbon,
Nitrogen, and Phosphorus are also used), but MRI acquires signal from primarily
from protons which reside within water and fat, which are approximately a
thousand times more abundant than the molecules detected with MRS. As a result
MRI often uses the larger available signal to produce very clean 2D images,
whereas MRS very frequently only acquires signal from a single localized
region, referred to as a “voxel”. MRS can be used to determine the
relative concentrations and physical properties of a variety of biochemical
frequently referred to as “metabolites” due to their role in metabolism. MRS allows doctors and
researchers to obtain biochemical information about the tissues of the human body in a non-invasive way (without the need for
a biopsy), whereas MRI only gives them information about the
structure of the body (the distribution of water and fat). . 

Because the 3 Tesla MRI scanner is so
reliable, physicians, radiology experts, and the rest of your health care team
are able to provide you with a quicker diagnosis and more accurate treatment,
which improves your chances of seeing a positive outcome. 

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