THERMAL are:- 1. Zirconium 2. Carbon steel 3.

THERMAL INSULATION

Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer. So, to prevent this we are building our torus with metals and some fibers for protecting from UV rays. We can protect our torus from asteroid by thermal insulation. There are four protection layers in thermal insulation. The four layers are:-

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1.    Zirconium

2.    Carbon steel

3.    Molybdenum

4.    Fiber glass

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 The thermal insulation depth is 4.3. The first layer can protect up to 1.07. The second layer can protect up to 1.05. The third layer can protect up to 1.15. The fourth layer can protect up to 1.03.

                 The first layer is zirconium. We can extract this metal from moon. The second layer is carbon. The third layer is molybdenum and the fourth layer is fiber glass.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FUEL

We are creating raw materials from petroleum by using fractional distillation method.

At different temperatures we are making various components which are essential in human life.

Firstly we boiled the petroleum up to 600?c, we obtain fuel oil and industrial boiler and we condense it up to 400?c. we obtain lubricant oil, when freezes up to 270?c we obtain diesel oil and diesel engine water and we cool it up to 170?c we obtain kerosene oil, wick stove at 120?c we can obtain petrol, dry cleaning fluid and heating torch, at 70?c we can obtain shoe polish and cleaning solution and used in making chemicals and at last we freeze it to the temperature of below 40?c we get fuel gas, liquefied petroleum gas, fertilizers which are useful for agriculture and synthetic rubber. The rest of residue we collected in another beaker to obtain asphalt with this we can get paints, making match box, candle, and wash paper, Vaseline and some other beauty products.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ARTIFICAL GRAVITY

There are so many methods to create artificial gravity in space by rotation, linear acceleration and magnetism. By rotating the torus we can create and increase the gravity and we can create by using centripetal force. Centripetal force is act towards the center of required for any object to move in a circular pat. By rotating also torus will provides the necessary centripetal force. Centripetal force pushes towards the axis of rotation. This torus was rotating at certain rate. The equation for the rate of rotation is:

                                                 ? = 9.55?g/r

Where

1.    ?is rate of rotation in rpm.

2.    G is acceleration due to gravity.

3.    R is radius.

By rotation, we can walk and do anything. Artificial gravity is need for the effect of weightlessness on people.

 

Linear Acceleration:-

This acceleration at low level gives sufficient g – force. A spacecraft under constant acceleration in straight line gives gravitational pull in direction opposite of the acceleration. Constant linear acceleration is in addition to provide artificial gravity is provides short times around solar system. Propulsion system at high impulses could accelerate more and producing useful levels of artificial gravity for long period. Electromagnetic propulsion can provide linear acceleration gravity.

 

Magnetism:-

Effect to gravity created through diamagnetism. It requires magnets with powerful magnetic fields. These magnets require cryogenic to keep them super conductive. It would involve avoid paramagnetic materials near to strong magnetic field required for diamagnetism to be evident. Lower forces may be generated a condition similar to lunar or Martian gravity with small model organisms.

 

Artificial gravity generator was a device that created a stable field of gravity outside of natural gravity well.

Diamagnetism:-

Diamagnetism materials are repelled by a magnetic field. This applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction with a repulsive fore. The magnetic permeability of diamagnetic materials is less than µ0, the permeability of vacuum also. Diamagnetism is a quantum mechanical effect that occurs in all materials. The superconductor acts as a strong diamagnetic because it repels a magnetic field entirely from its interior. Diamagnetism is a property of all materials and always makes a week contribution to the materials. Indeed, all substances are Diamagnetism the strong external magnetic field speeds up or slows down the electrons orbiting in atoms in such a way as to oppose the action of the external field.

 

 

 

                       

 

                               Notable diamagnetic materials

Materials

Xv(×10-5(SI UNITS))

Superconductor

?105

Pyro lytic carbon

?40.9

Bismuth

?16.6

Mercury

?2.9

Silver

?2.6

Carbon (diamond)

?2.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Gravity on residential torus:-

 r = 850m

 g = 9.8m/s

 v = ?gr 

 v = 91.2688337

g = v2/r = (91. 2688337)2/850 = 9.8m/s

  Agriculture torus:-

 r = 420m

g = 9.8m/s

 v = 64.1560597

 g = v2/r = (64.1560597)2/420 = 9.79999m/s nearly 9.8m/s

 Industrial toroids:-

 r = 360m

 g = 9.8m/s

 v = 59.19696969

 g = v2/r = (59.19696969)2/360 = 9.8m/s

 

 

 

 

 

 Main cylinder:-

  r = 120m

  g = 9.8m/s

  v = 34.292856

  g = v2/r = (34.292856)2/120 = 9.8m/s

 Docking:- 

 r = 270m

 g = 9.8m/s

 v = 51.4392846

 g = v2/r = (51.4392846)2/270 = 9.8m/s

 Thrusters:-

 r = 240m

 g = 9.8m/s

 v = 48.4974226

g = v2/r = (48.4974226)2/240 = 9.8m/s

 

 

 

 

 

 

Centripetal force

Ac = ?2r

 r = 850m

 ? = 2 ?r

     = 2×22/7×x/60

     = 22/7×x/15 = 11x/105

Ac = ?2r

     = (11x/105)2×850

     = 9.328798185/16 = 9.8m/s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AGRICULTURE

Agronomy refers to the word which gives a complete meaning of agriculture. There are sustainable technics to propagate crops.

Essential minerals:

1.    Nitrogen

2.    Phosphorous

3.    Potassium

4.    Calcium

5.    Magnesium

Trace elements:

1.    Boron

2.    Molybdenum

3.    Chlorine

4.    iodine

5.    selenium

The methods to propagate crops are:-

1.    Cultivating climbers crop

2.    Cultivating with less water

3.    Cultivating using hydroponic method

4.    Cultivating using aeroponics method 

Cultivating climber’s crop:

The main ascendancy (advantage) of propagating climbers is it will take less soil for growing and it will spread across more area. Ex: Chinese Virginia creeper, golden trumpet, wisteria sinuses etc.

Some climbers are small and it reaches up to around head height. To plant a few climbers together we have to pruning (cutting) requirements are compatible.

Plants can climb peculiar (different) ways. We kept climbing flora four categories they are:

1.    Tendrils

2.    Twines

3.    Scramblers

4.    Stem roots

Tendrils get from their slender (small) wiry growths that extended about an inch from stem and curl. The porcelain ampelopsis is a captivating (attractive) vine that will grow about six feet tall. It will grow best. Each ampelopsis plant produces berries of a variety of colors.

Twines have either twining leaves or twining stems that need something to twist and twin around. To climb twines give a trellis, string, wire, post. Twines can include morning glories, honeysuckle, clematis these all can grow large but they need strapping (strong) substratum (support) to retention (hold) their weights.

Scramblers are unable to climb on their own and need to be secured in place with either gardening string or wire. Their thorns can make this tender work. Scramblers include bougainvillea and climbing or rambling roses. Bougainvillea need full sun and well-drained soil. They should be fertilized in the early spring and midsummer and only pruned after they have finished flowering.

Stem root climbers use clingy stem roots to attach themselves to virtually any surface. These roots are so strong that they can actually damage paint and mortar when they are removed. For this reason, avoid planting them next to a house or shed, and instead have them climb a fence or trellis. They don’t need any additional support other than a vertical structure on which to cling.

 Cultivating with less water:

We are propagating using less water by using some efficient nutrients which take a vital role for cultivating plant growth. We will fix copious (sufficient) aqua pure (water) for every individual plant and we will drizzle (spray) guano (fertilizer) for every plant or crop.

Hydroponics:

This method is for growing plants without soil using enforce (required) nutrients solutions in water solvent. Terrestrial plants will grow with only their roots and rots may be sustained by inert medium for instance gravel.

Static solution culture

In this culture, plants will grow in containers with nutrients solutions. The solutions may be aerated or un-aerated. If it is un-aerated solution level will be put up (kept) in low plenteous (enough) to roots get adequate oxygen. For this culture we constructed a reservoir to growth of plants. A hole is cut in the lid of each plant of reservoir. The can be more plants per reservoir. If reservoir size increased the plant size also increased that means the plant size will increase with increase in reservoir size. The containers will be sheathed (covered) with aluminum foil, black plastic and other materials used to exclude light. We are covering with above materials for eliminating formation of algae. The nutrient solutions will be change as per type crop or once in a week.  

Fogponics:

Fogponics is derived from aeroponics where in nutrient solution will be aerolized by diaphragm vibrating at ultrasonic frequencies. Solution droplets produced by this method. The smaller size droplets confess (allows) them to diffuse through the air easily and nutrients given to roots without limiting excess of oxygen. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

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