The actions. The Lack of evidences has made

The concept of free-will create conflict between libertarianism and determinism. Libertarianism thinks  that we have free will and our actions are free from any causation. On the other hand, there are causes which are responsible for human actions. In other words they believe that we are not free. We always work according to the laws of nature. “Causes can be hard to discover, or coincidental, or have many different parts, but they are always there (Sider 113)”. Determinism has a great support of science to prove their side. They argue that science has found causes for all things and science is succeeded again and again. Human mind is complicated physical object and work according to laws of nature. Libertarianism has rejected the idea of brain and the suggested the concept of non physical concept “Soul”. They believe that existence of soul made human beings special and they do not follow the laws of nature. Libertarianism was not able to provide evidences that soul really exists. They just assume that humans have souls which are responsible for human actions.  The Lack of evidences has made their claim weak and they are not able to provide satisfied answers to the objections of their theory.Libertarianism is a great supporter of liberty. Their theory thinks that freedom is everything and everywhere. They argue that if we believe in determinism then it is just living a meaningless life. They consider life worthless without freedom of actions. They appeal that we human beings are special and we are totally free to perform our actions. They completely reject the idea of determinism which says that all human actions are caused by some previous actions. On the other hand libertarianism thinkthat if our actions are caused by some previous causes then we unable to achieve our goals of life. To defend their views against science they argue that, ” Science is good as far as it goes, but it will never succeeded in completely predicting human behavior (Sider 119). Some reasons are provided by libertarianism to show that we have free will. First, our daily life routines seem free from any causation. Consider in the morning time you decided that you will go outside for dinner. Suddenly in the evening you changed your mind and decided to stay home. This is totally causation free action because nobody and no reason force you to change your mind. Or consider one more example of the morning time when you get up and yawn. Obviously, when you get up in the morning time you are unconscious and this is your free action. There are some other examples too which prove that human actions are free flicking of eyes, kick something while walking etc. These things appeal us to believe that human actions are free.Although libertarianism provide some reasonable causes which ask us to believe in their philosophy, but there are some objections those put theory of libertarianism in trouble. Firstly, they seem confused with the idea of causation. On one hand they solve their conflict with determinism by rejecting the idea of causation but in some conditions they seek help from causation to describe their idea of freedom. Here is an example from our college, suppose Adrian is decorating the school on the occasion of new year and suddenly any heavy decoration material drops down from his hands and cause a severe injury to some students. Now it is clear that Adrian responsible for the injuries of students and deserve punishment for his action. If we ask from libertarianism that does Adrian should be punished, they will say no because he has no cause to drop heavy material on student. At libertarianism is able to tell us why Adrian is not responsible without taking help from causation. The second objection is their conflict with science. Libertarianism declares that we humans are special because of non physical object soul. They say that soul does not work according to the laws of nature. They rejected the idea of science that human brain controls our actions. Science has proved that brain has special neuron system which work according to the laws of physics. The problem with this theory is that it does not provide any evidence which can show that souls really exist. Physics could predict the motion of human brain by working on small particles of human brain. Science has proved the existence of human brain. The study of  human psychology showed that we have a brain which controlled all human actions. Libertarianism has rejected both ideas but they do not have any base to prove the truth of their own story. But on the other hand science is succeeded again and again and again. It is possible to repeat the results of science because they are more reliableAlthough libertarianism has tried to support their theory by introducing a special term  called” Agent- Causation”. But this alone is not sufficient to support their views. According to libertarianism Agent causation is a special kind of causation which only human beings have and it is different from ordinary mechanistic causation which we have studied in physics and other hard sciences. The different between both causation is that Agent causation does not obey the laws of nature. The introduction of term agent causation do not really solve the problem. There are some reasons behind it because it does not tell us why we human beings have that special causation. The term agent causation is seems like a claim without any firm bases. In my opinion determinism is better than libertarianism to understand how the real word works. It is true that libertarianism just focus on causation which is also a weak part of this theory. Determinism is practically applicable because it has evidence for its every claim. It believes in the existence of brain and this claim is supported by science. We all knew that all humans has brain it is possible by science to control over it. So it is reasonable to believe that there is cause after every action even though sometimes it is hard to find. As libertarianism believe that, “Sometimes the cause of our decisions are not consciously detectable , but those causes still exist. Again consider examples of human actions which seems free like the decision of staying at home might cause that you do not want to spend more money or you are conscious about your diet. You yawn because your arms get tied during sleeping all the night. Quantum Mechanism makes room for freedom. This is the theory about the behavior of tiny particles. It does not predict with certainty what will occur, it gives only probabilities of outcomes. The action with higher probability used  occur in the future. This helps libertarianism to get red from causation. But the problem with this term is that it mindlessly follow the probabilities of outcomes.We cannot say that determinism is perfect theory. There are also some objections to theory. As it is mentioned in the book the punch on the nose of a person who is devotee of determinism and told that person that is not my decision because I am not free. I punched at your nose because some previous causes cause me to punch at your nose.To sum up, it is reasonable to say that both theories are unable to solve the conflict of free will. We can -not survive without reasoning and cannot totally depend on reasoning. A middle path between these two views will be helpful to solve the conflict. Soft determinism did really good job to solve the conflict between these two theories. Soft determinism believes that a free action is that which is caused by person’s believes and desires, provided that those beliefs and desires flow from who the person is.  


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