The hypothesis for this annotated bibliography was
that social media has no influence on self-value in the Western World. This
hypothesis was disproven by numerous articles which show correlational, as well
as causal relationships between social media and self-value. The articles are
used to explain the way in which social media infiltrates the brain, and then
reinforced by popular belief brought on by peers and others that may have
influence in someone’s life.
Folkvord F, Anschutz DJ, Wiers RW, Buijzen M: The
role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food
intake among children. Appetite 2015;
This article centered on the idea of how food advertisements affect children.
They measured it through cue reactivity which simply measures physiological
changes, which includes salivation, increased heart rate, as well as gastric
activity. As well as measuring psychological changes in reaction to the food
cues from the advertisements on the television and other sources of media.
There were two processing models found in discovering the influence of food on
the child’s cognition. The first model discussed was the Processing of
Commercialized Media Content. This model explained that children who use less cognition in understanding
the food cue from the advertisement mean that the product would have a strong impression
on the child’s schema. The second model developed was the Differential
Susceptibility to Media Effects Model. This model explained that not all
children process these advertisements cues equally. This also depends on the
social life of the child and usually aligns with the foods that are encouraged
by peers and family.
Unhealthy foods are more
advertised simply because they gain a better reception from the audience, which
means the people who make the advertisements will continue to promote unhealthy
foods because it gains the most profit from the audience. This article was
chosen in order to explain how information retrieved and processed in cognition,
from social media.
Gentry, E., Poirier,
K., Wilkinson, T., Nhean, S., Nyborn, J., & Siegel, M. (2011). Alcohol
Advertising at Boston Subway Stations: An Assessment of Exposure by Race and
Socioeconomic Status. American Journal Of Public Health, 101(10),
The research was done on alcoholism to see the prevalence it
holds in many of the subway stations. Gentry et. al. did this by observing 113
streetcar and subway stations in various neighborhoods of a southeastern city.
They measured the amount of consumption of alcohol through the Gross Ratings Points
(GRPs). It was shown that the advertisements put near the schools of those who
are in the grades of 5 through 12 have a 134 GRPs. The researched depicted that
14.1 GRPs was the amount of alcohol consumption in low poverty neighborhoods.
Which more than likely describes the neighborhoods with people who are in the
lower middle class to the high upper class. However, in the neighborhoods that
had the high poverty rate, it showed that they held an outstanding 63.6 GRPs;
which is clearly a significant difference.
This article was chosen for the readers to understand that
ads, which are a part of social media, are deliberately placed in the
neighborhoods with a high poverty rate, preying on their depression and
maximizing their profit. The alcohol advertisements use operant conditioning by
continuing to help keep the people in high poverty which further puts them in a
depressive state, thus perpetuating the want of the alcohol to suppress their
issues. This article was chosen for the readers to understand that ads, which
are a part of social media, are shown in order to develop
Sengupta, R. (2006).
Reading Representations of Black, East Asian, and White Women in Magazines for
Adolescent Girls. Sex Roles, 54(11-12), 799-808.
This article basically depicts the constant phenomena of
certain stereotypes that continue even after the many of years of trying to
change the world’s view on race, especially when dealing with women. Sengupta
shuffled through a various amount of magazines in which the people chose to
advertise many types of announcements. It became clear to Sengupta that even
though many people would believe that the world is changing with their
perception of women, the stereotypes of women still remain the same. Sengupta
found that European white women are still considered the ideal beauty, Asian
women are simply used for technology, while African black women are still being
hypersexualized. These stereotypes continue to be used in all types of
advertisements in order to push a certain product. European white women tend to
be used for face product lines, simply because they believe that those features
are the ones that many should aspire to have. Asian women are usually put next
to anything that is considered technology in order to make the audience believe
that these products are the most efficient. African black women are used in
products that are to show off curves, or anything that needs to have a
Advertisements use certain people for certain products
simply because they bring the most amount of revenue with certain types of
women models, which then helps women develop a personal sense of where they may
belong in the world.
Coltraine, S., &
Messineo, M. (2000). The perpetuation of subtle prejudice: Race and gender
imagery in 1990s television advertising. Sex Roles, 42(5-6),
Coltraine and Messineo did a more detailed study on the
black race as well as the white race. They chose to expose the advertisements
from 1992-1994 showcasing the same old stereotypes that many had believed would
change. It was made clear to Coltraine and Messineo that white men were always
put in powerful positions in the advertisements. White women were always
subject to being the sex objects of a various amount of advertisements during
this time. Black men were still considered aggressive, however, this could be
due to the rise of the black community wanting to gain their identity as well
as fight the rising epidemic of police brutality. Black women were considered
inconsequential or no real need for existence, simply because they were not
really represented in the advertisements during this time. The stereotypes are
continually used in each of those advertisements especially with the rise of
overt racism, and the black people fighting to gain power and representation in
the country in which they reside.
Advertisement companies use these stereotypes in order to
gain a sense of what will cause the least uproar in their audience as well as
gaining the most profit from their announcement. This clearly shows the operant
conditioning of the advertisements perpetuating the behavior of these biases in
this country, in order to gain the maximum amount of profit. Which then
reinforces ideas that many should have of themselves, due to a certain
representation they are exposed to in the social media.
Whittler, T. E., & Spira, J. S.
(2002). Model’s Race: A Peripheral Cue in Advertising Messages?. Journal Of
Consumer Psychology (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), 12(4), 291-301.
black participants from the southeastern city were used in a study in order to observe
garment advertisements with a white model and a black model. It was made clear
that the black participants who identified strongly with their identity were
able to accept the black model more than the white model in the advertisements.
It was made clear to the researchers that the black participants who had a weak
identification with their black culture tended to accept the white model with
the garment in the advertisement. This shows that the advertisements prime the
mind heavily in order to help the human understand their personal preferences
in the world. The blacks who assimilate to the ideals of those who produce the
advertisements. These constant priming from the youth of the child heavily
impacts the cognition of the humans’ schema in developing what they choose as
personal preferences from a simple taste until it develops into the
subconscious where the ads target the mind to believe in the way of the
advertisements use operant conditioning in order to gain the max amount of
profits, even if that is at the expense of the person’s self-esteem and
identity. This article was chosen due to its clear results of how much social
media has had an effect on the women.
Instagram linked to young people’s
mental health problems. (2017). Education Journal, (304), 12.
1500 young persons, ranging from the age of 14 to 24 years
of age, were given a survey by the Royal Society for Public Health and the Young
Health Movement. The survey presented ranking questions in order to determine if
a few of the social media platforms has impacted 14 health and
wellbeing-related issues. These 14 health and well-being issues that were used
for the survey, had been identified by experts as the most significant. The
social media platforms that were used in correlation with the 14 health and
well-being issues were YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram. YouTube
was ranked the most positive of all these social media platforms, while
Instagram was ranked the most negative.
This article makes a clear correlation between certain
facets of social media and its influence in regards to the mind of the users. It
is clear that as social media continues to grow, so will the influence it has
on the self-value of the people who may use social media.
Yu, U., Kozar, J. M., &
Damhorst, M. L. (2013). Influence of Multiple Age Identities on Social
Comparison, Body Satisfaction, and Appearance Self-Discrepancy for Women across
the Life Span. Family & Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 41(4), 375-392.
This article specifically explains social comparison theory
and its effect on women when they are gaining influence from the media. The researchers
used a sample of 279 women throughout various women’s philanthropic and social
organizations, who were residing in either the Midwestern or Southern regions
of the United States, between the ages of 30 to 80 years of age. They were
given a 5 point Likert-type survey, which was used in order to identify self-perceptions
of body image, and individual variations of age identities, and across the life
span of women. The findings indicated that the women who held a larger
discrepancy with their chronological age as opposed to their ideal age were
more likely to compare themselves with the media image.
It is clear in this article that women envision themselves
heavily in comparison to a great amount of media images that are posted. It was
also shown that the older women were in the study, the older the ideal image
Jang Hyun, K., Min-Sun, K., &
Yoonjae, N. (2010). An Analysis of Self-Construals, Motivations, Facebook Use,
and User Satisfaction. International Journal Of Human-Computer Interaction,
The researchers of this study gave a 7 point scale survey to
170 students, who attend a large western United States university. The participants
ranged between the ages of 18 to 23 years of age and held a larger ratio of
female to male. The survey used questions that determined if the participant
was interdependent as opposed to independent. As well as questions that
indicated whether or not the use of Facebook, a social media platform, was due
to social motivations or non-social motivations. There was a positive correlation
between people who were interdependent and used Facebook due to social, as well
as non-social, motivations. This study found a causal link between self-traits
and motivation to use social media, which leads to social networking sites and
the satisfaction gained from the use of these sites.
This study is used in order to show an indication between
the traits of certain people who may be more motivated, as well as affected by
the use of social media.