The in Mecca. The people of Mecca have

The long-standing
objections leveled against the Quran by critics is how it appears to have a
structural unity and lacks anything of the kind of orderly arrangement. Arguments
include that it is riddled with unsettling shifts of scene, location, subject
and is filled with unpredictability, which results in conclusion that the Quran
is just a remarkable compilation of unrelated passages, at best. I will attempt
to analyze several of the Quranic verses based on our assigned readings with
linguistic stylistics and analyzing the recurring themes throughout the surah
to prove that there exists a stylistic unity in the Quran. In this analysis, I will
focus on the Quranic surah “The Dawn.” (89)

In this surah, the
contents show that it was revealed at the beginning phase of persecution of the
new converts to Islam had begun in Mecca. The people of Mecca have been warned
of cataclysmic end of the great tribes of Ad and Thamud and of the Pharaohs
kingdom. Its theme is to uphold the “allocation” of rewards and retribution in
the afterlife, the presence of an omnipotent God and a critique to the general ethical
state of mankind.

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In the first
verse, the oaths may generally imply that the alternation of the day and night
cycles in the sense that the dates of the month go on altering from the 1st
to the 2nd, and from 2nd to the 3rd and so on,
then every alteration brings with it something new. This of course can be a
clear interpretation of a symbol of regularity that exists in the night and day
cycle, and swearing oaths by these raises the question for mankind: Even after
witnessing this wise system established by God, do you still need any other
evidence to show that it is not beyond the power of that of an omnipotent being
who has brought about this system to establish the afterlife, and asserts the
question of are these four things not enough to convince a rational man of the certainty
of this matter so that he may need yet another evidence for it? Thematically, this
verse points to the reality that an ‘omnipotent’ being is ruling over this

The following verse
(89:6-14), reasoning using man’s own history, the cataclysmic end of the Ad and
the Thamud tribes and the Pharaohs kingdom has been cited as an example to show
that continuous transgression and multiplied corruption on earth results in
retribution by God. The mention of the conduct of a few great tribes and civilizations
of history and their downfall is meant to point out that the universe is not
working under arbitrary law of nature, but instead proof of an omnipotent God
is ruling over it; ergo continuing the theme from the previous verse. Similarly,
in the following line, the words “Your lord is hiding and waits”(89:14)
might have been used metaphorically for a God that keeps watch on the movements
and activities of the evildoers and watching all their misdeeds and at any
given moment would unleash his retribution upon them; which asserts the
existence of an all-seeing and all-knowing God.

The theme of criticism of men’s materialistic view of life and the
reward and punishment system of the afterlife is more prevalent in this next verse,
(89:15-26) It refers to how man regards the wealth
and position and power of this world alone as everything. When he has it, he is
filled with pride and says, “my lord has honored me” (89:17); and when he fails
to obtain it, he says: “my lord has treated me with disdain” (89:19). Thus, the
criterion of honor and humiliation in his sight is the possession of wealth and
position and power, or the absence of it, whereas the actual truth which he
does not understand is that whatever God has given anybody in the world has
been given for the sake of a trial. Again, we are able to go back and correlate
the two themes with the thematic approach of an all-powerful creator.

Which once again
appears in the verse after, (89:20-24) the line “When the lord and the angels
approach rank on rank arrayed” (89:22) can be interpreted as an allegoric
expression, which is meant to give an idea that at that time the manifestations
of Gods immense majesty and sovereignty will appear entirely, as, for example,
in the world the arrival of a king in person in the court is more awe-inspiring
than the mere array of his forces and chiefs and nobles.

importance of the stylistic unity in theme of this specific surah is of course,
directly correlated with one of the pillars Islam, which is the affirmation and
oneness of God and refers to the interior unity of an omnipotent being – all-seeing,
hearing, knowing and willing. 


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