The DevelopmentCourse Code:SOCI 3027Tutor: Beverly ShirleyWith reference to

The University of the West IndiesName: Ushae StewartID Number: 620077595Course Name: Gender and DevelopmentCourse Code:SOCI 3027Tutor: Beverly ShirleyWith reference to at least three human development indicators, discuss the significance of the human development indicators to the development process. The Human Development Index (HDI) was developed by the United Nations as a metric to assess the social and economic development levels of various countries. There are four principal areas of examination used to rank these countries: mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, life expectancy at birth and gross national income per capita. This index makes it possible to follow changes in development levels over time and to compare the development levels of different countries(United Nation Development programme, 2017). Extracted from United Nation Development programme ( 2017), HDI is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions, it was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country and not just the economic growth. The health aspect of the HDI is measured by life expectancy, as calculated at time of birth, in each country. Education is measured on two levels: the mean years of schooling for residents of a country and the expected years of schooling that a child has at the average age for starting school. The metric chosen to represent standard of living is GNI per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP), a common metric used to reflect average income.According to United Nations (2017),The three indicators  of health,education and standard of living play a positive role in the development of a country. Long and healthy life  measured by life expectancy at birth deals with vulnerability to death at a relatively early age, this indicator is the average number of years that a newborn could expect to live, if he or she were subject to the age-specific mortality rates of a given period.Mortality, with fertility and migration, determines the size of human population, their composition by age and sex, and the population’s potential for future growth. Life expectancy, a basic indicator, is closely connected with health conditions, which are in turn an integral part of development.These health conditions include access to health care, water and land, the incidences of diseases and natural disasters. While knowledge refers to adult literacy rate, the exclusion from the world of reading and early communications, the number of adults who are able to read and write or be enrolled in school shows how easy or difficult it is to access knowledge in a particular country.With no education, person’s who are considered as illiterate would be unable to get jobs causing a great strain on the country’s economy. Lastly, a decent standard of living refers to earned income, according to (Anon, 2017) GDP measures annual economic output as well as the total value of new goods and services produced within a country’s borders .In essence, what is done is that the value of all goods and services produced within a country’s borders is adjusted for inflation, and then divide by the total population of the country. With standard of living, the lack of access to a country’s economic provision affects job growth, personal finance and investments. However if the economy is slow in growth, the country would experience a spike in their rate of unemployment. The Human development indicator allows access to the areas of development which requires improvement. Anon ( 2017) explained  nearly one billion of the world’s people do not have access to improved water sources; 2.4 billion lack access to basic sanitation, eleven million children under the age of five die each year from preventable causes. That’s equivalent to more than 30,000 deaths a day. Approximately 1.2 billion people live on less than $1 a day; 2.8 billion live on less than $2 a day. But there were also some encouraging trends: A child born in 2002 could expect to live eight years longer than one born in the early 1970s. The share of rural families with access to safe water has grown more than fivefold since the early 1970s.  Between 1975 and 1998, average incomes in developing countries nearly doubled in real terms, from $1,300 to $2,500 (Anon, 2017). The human development clearly aids in the development process. According to  Winsbury (2017),There is widespread use of HDI to compare development levels and it does reveal clear global patterns,does not solely concentrate on economic development, and takes into consideration that there are other, more social ways to measure human development. An increase in education and health will show an improvement in a country’s infrastructure. GDP per capita alone is clearly too narrow of an indicator of economic development and fails to indicate other aspects of development, such as enrolment in school and longevity. Hence, the HDI is a broader and more encompassing indicator of development than GDP, though it still provides one third of the index(Economics Online, 2017).ReferencesAnon, (2017). How do we measure standard of living. online Available at: http://e:///C:/Users/ushae/Downloads/measure.pdf Accessed 5 Nov. 2017.Economicsonline. (2017). Economic development and its indicators. online Available at: http://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Global_economics/Economic_development.html Accessed 5 Nov. 2017.UN. (2017). LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH. online Available at: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/methodology_sheets/health/life_expectancy.pdf Accessed 5 Nov. 2017.United Nation Development programme. (2017). Human Development Index (HDI) | Human Development Reports. online Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-index-hdi Accessed 5 Nov. 2017.Winsbury, D. (2017). How is Development Measured – Positives and Negatives of the Human Development Index (HDI). online Daniel Winsbury Sociology. Available at: https://danielwinsburysociology.wordpress.com/2014/01/17/how-is-development-measured-positives-and-negatives-of-the-human-development-index-hdi/ Accessed 5 Nov. 2017.

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