Task heavy things}. Short bones’ primary function

Task 2:

Long bones support body weight and aid in movement. They are extremely
dense and hard so they give the body strength and structure. Other than their
structural role, long bones also produce stromal {manufactures cartilage, fat
cells and store adipocytes whose triglycerides are a source for energy} and
hematopoietic {manufactures white and red blood cells and platelets} marrow. Long
bones can also function as levers. This aids the muscles to function to their highest
potential and allows speedy movement, and application of strength {for e.g.
picking up heavy things}.

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Short bones’ primary function is to provide support and stability
however; they allow little-no movement. Sesamoid bones are a type of short bone
that develop in a tendon. They differ in quantity and size in between different
people. Some sesamoid bone work to adjust the direction of pull of a tendon.
This protects tendons from wear and stress. The purpose of other sesamoid bones
elsewhere in the body is unknown. Other than their structural role, short bones
also produce stromal {manufactures cartilage, fat cells and store adipocytes
whose triglycerides are a source for energy} and hematopoietic {manufactures
white and red blood cells and platelets} marrow.

Irregular bones differ in structure
and shape compared to long, short and flat bones. Their complex shape protects
internal organs {for e.g. irregular bones in the vertebral column safeguard the
nervous tissue in the spinal cord protecting it from shock which can possibly
squash the nervous tissue and irregular bones in the pelvis safeguard organs
contained in the pelvic cavity}. Other functions include affording various
anchor points for skeletal muscle attachment (as with the sacrum), and
maintaining pharynx and trachea support, and tongue attachment (such as the
hyoid bone). Irregular bones connect all components of the spinal column hence
why most of the irregular bones are found in the spinal cord. Irregular bones
also interact with the tendons and muscles which allows movement of the pelvis
{especially during child birth} and back. Similar to other bones, irregular
bones also store calcium, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus which are needed for
physiological mechanisms of the body.

            Flat bones serve as
shields for the brain, heart pelvic organs, protecting them from trauma. They
are also a scaffold for large muscle groups to attach to. Flat bones have a
flat shape which helps to provide protection for large areas that need muscle
attachment. The Cranium protects the brain from injury. In children cranial
bones are parted by sutures which allow skull expansion as the brain enlarges.
After the brain has stopped growing, the sutures close and cranial bones fuse
to form one continuous bone. The rib cage safeguards the aorta, heart and
lungs. The lower cage covers the upper abdomen so it protects the spleen and
liver. During exhalation, the rib cage moves outwards with the help of
intercostal muscles around them, filling the lungs with air. The Scapula
protects the back of the chest. Part of the scapula forms the socket of the
shoulder joint and takes part in shoulder motions like arm elevation. The
scapula is also the point of attachment for each of the rotator cuff muscles which
keep the shoulder joint stable. In adults, the highest number of red blood
cells are formed in flat bones.



Task 3:

Bones are
composed of 4 types of cells, mainly osteoblasts, osteocytes osteoclasts and
lining cells. The formation of the bones is carried out by active osteoblasts.
Osteoblasts synthesise type 1 probe collagen molecule into the extracellular
matrix later forming collagen matrix. They also synthesise osteocalcin and
osteonectine that bind the collagen into hydroxyapatite crystals, a crystalline
mineral of the bone. Calcium is then deposited in the form of calcium phosphate
while hydroxide and bicarbonate are added and the hydroxyapatite crystals are
formed. As the bone matrix is formed osteoblasts see synthetic activity and
become osteocytes embedded in the bone matrix. These osteocytes are
interconnected by a canaliculus which allow transfer of calcium ions from the
interior of bone to surface in the process called osteocytic osteolysis.


phosphorus has a significant function in the development of peak bone mass.
Phosphate makes up approximately half the weight of bone mineral and must be
present in adequate amounts in diet to mineralise and maintain the skeleton.


Task 5:

muscle fibres are packaged into the organs called skeletal muscles that attach
to the body’s skeleton. Each fibre is made from bundles of myofibrils, which
are extremely long, cylindrical muscle cells. Every muscle is covered by epimysium
{a connective tissue sheath}. The connective tissue outside the epimysium
{fascia} encloses and parts the muscles.


Parts of
the epimysium project inward to split the muscle into sections. Each section
has a bundle of muscle fibres. Each bundle {known as a fasciculus} and is
surrounded by perimysium {layer of connective tissue}. Every single muscle fibre
inside the fasciculus

surrounded by endomysium {layer of connective tissue}.


Similar to
other body cells, skeletal cells are sensitive and delicate. The connective
tissue coverings safeguard and support for the cells and assist to endure
contraction forces. The connective tissue coverings also create passageways for
the nerves and blood vessels.


Normally, perimysium,
endomysium and epimysium
extend past the fleshy area of the muscle to create a bulky tendon {like a
rope} or a wide, flat sheet-like aponeurosis. The aponeurosis and tendon create indirect attachments
from muscles to periosteum of bones or to the connective tissue of nearby
muscles. A muscle spans a joint and is connected to bones by tendons at both
ends. One of the bones stays somewhat stationary/immoveable while; the other is
able to move through muscle contraction.


muscles have plenty of nerves and blood vessels running through them. This is
to assist with the primary function of muscles; to contract. To initiate contraction
in a muscle fibre, it first needs to receive an impulse from a nerve cell.



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