Studying key to apprehend the present as well

history of something is important as it allow us to understand and make a
better decision in our life. From what I believe they couldn’t have a present
or future without a past and the past is the major key to apprehend the present
as well as the future because you can use information from the past to study
and resolve problems in the present also as make any improvement overtime.


According to research I have made (, ‘Psychology has diversity and the purpose of studying the
history of psychology is to help remove the confusion caused by the diversity
of psychology by helping us to understand the present diversity. This diversity
can be used as a resource rather than some obstacles, and our understanding of
psychology’s development makes contemporary psychology richer for us. The
Knowledge of the past is absolutely worthwhile.
It is beneficial in providing perspectives.” 

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term of studying history of psychology, it does provide us with information on
how everything of studying of human mind and all the functions had begun. It
also provides us with a better understanding of where we were, we are and where
we are going.

studying history of psychology, it helps you to stay away from making the same
mistakes and it also helps us to perceive the teaching in a new way as we come
to know the believe of psychological theories.



 “Discuss the changes in beliefs from the end
of the pre-modern period into the modern period.



can be describe as a time before the “enlightenment of the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries and a time before
the criteria of truth became so stringent.” It was also a time where
everything was mostly view as a philosophy. The pre-modern life was mostly control
or belief by “supernatural realm” or belief in God.


From early on, the Catholic Church liked to see the hierarchy
with POPE above KING (though below GOD), but this was a dream of theirs, never
a reality, though it did stoke conflict between the Church and secular rulers. The
idea was that life on earth ought to reflect the divine order of heaven. This
fit in very well with the unchanging nature of life in the Malthusian economy.
Not only did things not change very much, but ideally they ought not to change
at all. Since most change was bad, change could be seen as departing from the
ideal, static, nature of the universe and people’s position in the universe.


The modern concept of the individual began to
emerge in many areas during the High Middle Ages. Biographies and
autobiographies were written; portraits came to reflect the individual, not
merely the person’s status. The development of transparent glass led to the
creation of good mirrors. For the first time, people could see themselves clearly,
and surely this led to self-reflection on the difference between the way they
seemed to be to others and the way they felt and thought inside (Davies, 1996).
Soon, Descartes would turn self-reflection into a new foundation for philosophy
and, along the way, invent psychology.

Also, in early Christianity, women
were full participants in religion; they preached and often lived in chaste,
mixed-sex monasteries. The early middle Ages were full of strong female figures
as capable and powerful as any man. However, as Christianity absorbed Classical
culture, it absorbed Roman misogyny and Platonic aversion to sensual pleasure.
Marriage was forbidden to priests; women were forbidden to preach
or even approach holy relics. They were reduced to second-class status as
helpers of men. According to St. Thomas Aquinas, “Woman was created to be man’s
helpmate, but her unique role is in conception … since for other purposes men
would be better assisted by other men” (Heer, 1962, p. 322).

The Renaissance
1350–1600- The Renaissance is rightly celebrated
for its creativity in the arts. For the history of psychology, it initiated the
transition from medieval to modern times. The distinctive development of the
Renaissance was the reappearance of humanism: placing importance on individual
human beings and their lives in this world as opposed to the medieval concern
with feudal social status and the religious concern with future lives in Heaven
or Hell. As psychology is the science of individual mind and behavior, it owes
a debt to humanism. Renaissance
humanism turned the focus of human inquiry away from medieval preoccupations
with God and heaven toward the study of nature, including human nature. Freed
from medieval religious prohibitions on dissection of the human body, artists
such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) and physicians such as Andreas Vesalius
(1514–1564) undertook detailed anatomical studies, beginning to see the body as
an intricate but understandable machine, a key to scientific psychology. Since
the dawn of time, people had closely observed nature but had rarely interfered
in its operations. In the Renaissance, however, a new relationship between
humans and nature took shape. Led by Francis Bacon (1561–1626), scientists
began to interrogate nature by means of experimentation and sought to use their
knowledge to control nature. Bacon said, “Knowledge is power.” Throughout the
twentieth century, psychology has followed Bacon’s maxim, aiming to be a means
of advancing human welfare. Applied psychology began with the Italian political
writer, Niccolo Machiavelli (1469–1527), who linked the study of human nature
to the pursuit of political power. Though not discarding religious notions of
right and wrong, Machiavelli looked unsparingly at human nature in the new
naturalistic spirit, seeing humans as made more for sin than for salvation. He
told princes how to exploit human nature for their own ends while avoiding
tempting paths of selfishness that could harm their nations.





how these changes have impacted current practice in psychology?


The Scientific Revolution outshines everything since the
rise of Christianity and reduces the Renaissance and Reformation to the rank of
mere episodes, mere internal displacements, within the system of medieval
Christendom. The importance of science in the modern world cannot be doubted,
and the Scientific Revolution cannot be passed over by any history of the
West—especially a history of a science, even if that science (psychology, in
this instance) was not part of the revolution. The outcome of the Scientific
Revolution is unquestioned. It displaced the earth from the center of the
universe and conceived of the universe a gigantic machine quite independent of
human feelings and needs. It overthrew the Aristotelian natural philosophy of
scholasticism, substituting a search for precise mathematical regularities
confirmable by experiment. It substituted a new view of the universe as a
machine for the older Greek and Roman views of the universe as divine being or
readable book. It also proposed that people could improve their lot by the
application of reason and experiment rather than by prayer and devotion (Rossi,
1975). It also created modern consciousness and its science, psychology.


In an important sense, the distinction of primary and
secondary properties created psychology, or at least the psychology of
consciousness. People were now compelled to ask how and why the secondary
properties originate. If experience simply reflects the world as it is, then
the problem of how it does so is a legitimate but not very profound question. If,
however, the world of experience is radically different from the world as it
is, then the creation of that subjective world—the world we live in as human
beings—becomes a more interesting and important matter. Understood
this way, psychology was philosophically important because its study could shed
light on the scope and limits of human knowledge.


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