Studying king’s reign by a coup. “Kabul

Studying literature teaches us a lot about the history and culture of the place the story is set in, by reading “The Kite Runner” the readers learn about the major historical events that took place in Afghanistan and they also learn about the culture as well as the festivals celebrated in Afghanistan. The readers learn that Afghanistan had a monarchy and their last king, Zahir Shah ruled for forty years and in July of 1973 when the King Zahir Shah was in Italy, his cousin Daoud Khan ended the king’s reign by a coup. “Kabul awoke the next morning to find that monarchy was a thing of the past” (Khaled Hosseini, 39) Overnight the king was exiled and the whole political system of the country was changed. Daoud Khan declared himself president. Later on, he was killed by Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan in 1978 and continued to rule the country till 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. Under the Soviet rule there was no going against the Soviets, people who said anything against them were reprimanded, “The rafiqs, the comrades, were everywhere and they’d split Kabul into two groups: those who eavesdropped and those who didn’t.”(Khaled Hosseini, ) People told on each other creating an atmosphere of mistrust and fear. The Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 after which Northern Alliance divided the country and ruled it till 1996. Under the Northern Alliance, the condition of Afghanistan deteriorated rapidly, since groups ruled different parts of the city it was almost impossible to travel within the city. There was always a risk of you “getting shot by a sniper or getting blown up by a rocket … You practically needed a visa to go from one neighborhood to the other” (Khaled Hosseini, 210) “The Alliance did more damage to Kabul than the Shorawi.” (Khaled Hosseini, 209) The alliance destroyed a lot of places including the orphanage Baba built and they murdered a lot of people. Then in 1996 Taliban took over Kabul overthrowing the alliance, initially, people were very happy because it meant that the Northern Alliance would no longer be in control but Taliban turned out to be much worse than the alliance. The Taliban murdered so many people including Hassan and Farzana for no reason but the ethnicity and religion. There were public executions and stoning of people in Ghazi stadium that people were forced to watch and admire. After the unfortunate incident on September 11, 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan overthrowing the Taliban and introducing a democratic system.

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