Society social interactions are viable because of the

Society is a group of individuals with common culture, shared territory and interaction. Immigration is for responsible for the majority of the modern American population. During the first impact of immigration in the U.S 70 million immigrants arrived. Immigration is the fundamental backbone of American society. It is one factor that shapes the way in which society evolves. Waves of immigrants from Europe, Latin America, and Asia have greatly affected the political, economic, and social institutions, as well as, adding to the nation’s cultural variety. Immigration necessary for economic growth. Currently, approximately 60 million people in the United States are first or second generation immigrants. Effective social interactions are viable because of the elements of culture. The elements of culture include symbols, language, norms, values, and artifacts. All cultures contain symbols. Shared symbols represent ideas and qualities that evoke emotions or reactions and allow for social interaction. Non verbal gestures and objects are two types of symbols. Symbols play a significant role in the immigration process. The adjustment to a new culture includes learning new cultural symbols in order to communicate. During the interview, Raghu Padiyath, talked about a spice rack or cultural symbol that he brought from India while immigrating to the U.S. Raghu uses the spices to season culturally specific foods from India as well as americanized dishes. This is an example of adapting and adjusting to a new culture and its elements. An ingroup is a social institution that a person identifies as being a member of. By contrast, an outgroup is a social institution that an individual does not identify with. In many instances, individuals feel some form of attachment to the ingroup they associate with. This attachment is usually based on opposition toward an outgroup. People from an ingroup oftenly harbor a sense of resistance and even hatred towards outgroups. Opposition to immigration in America may be associated with this idea. Individuals may fear that newcomers with different languages, religions, and cultures are reluctant to assimilate into American society and to learn English. Most people are more comfortable with the familiar than with change.The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, war in Iraq, and conflicts in afghanistan  have all had a severe impact upon American opinions of immigrants. These events have been a catalyst for prompting changes in the way the United States governs immigration, creating new laws tightening restrictions on who is and is not allowed to emigrate to the U.S. The restrictions consequent to 9/11 resulted in detentions of Innocent Immigrants. In recent years, new reforms have been made in favor of immigration. Despite this, anti-immigration activists are still largely present, potentially due to America’s long lasting collective perception after 9/11. Edwin Sutherland’s theory of Differential Association explains this phenomenon. The theory is is a learning based theory. It suggests that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for and about criminal behavior. The theory and social influence explain mass formation of public opinion. After 9/11 people’s  emotions, opinions, or behaviors were affected by the common beliefs of others about immigration. Language and cultural barriers, inability to vote, limited access to healthcare, constant fear of deportation, and low paying jobs are a few factors that contribute to the stress and disenfranchisement of refugees and undocumented immigrants. Undocumented immigrants have difficulty accessing and receiving services, largely because they are afraid of being deported. Individuals will avoid seeking medical attention, public transportation or reaching out legal guidance when needed. Cultural barriers and norms make it especially difficult for immigrants to communicate. Difficulties communicating can result in an individual’s voice and opinions not being heard, making them feel invisible. The inability to vote is a disabling factor that does not allow undocumented immigrants to have a choice in political situations, and it is another example of disenfranchisement.

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