Serial apex and net fluxes of NO3- tend

Serial NO.

Problem or Scope
of Study

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TechniqueUsed

Specific Electro-
analytical
Method

Targeted  Sample

Targeted Analyte

Method Specification

Output/  Result

Comments

References

1

Estimation of Fluoride ion 
in tea of different kindes  and
the exposure of fluoride to
 humans .

Electro-
analytical
technique.

Fluoride
ISE

Tea
samples:
populr black, oolon, green.

Fluoride
ion

The tea samples were prepared for the analyses. .
The  1 g of tea was weighed and
added100 ml of boiling distilled water. The whole procedure is performed at
room temperature. A Standard Reference Material was
analyzed for  content.

The fluoride contents for continuous infusions were 55-90% and
for repeated infusions were 74-100%.

The
author successfully applied this electrode for determination of fluoride
conc. in tea samples.

      1

2.

 Ion-Selective Microelectrodes used for
estimation of net fluxes of ammonium and nitrate at the surface of Barley
roots.

Electro-
analytical technique

Ammonium and nitrate selective
microelectrodes.

Barley seeds

NH4+ and N03-
ions

Plants were taken  into the experimental chamber at
approximately 21:30 hour on the evening before the experiment. NH4+
or NO3-selective microelectrodes were synthesized  in groups of eight the evening before an
experiment. The MFET method is used in this experiment.

The NH4+ axial scans   show a slight decline in net NH4+
flux with distance from the root apex and net fluxes of NO3- tend
to be low near the root apex.

With the use of electrodes and MFET we
have been able to observe net fluxes of NH4+ and NO3-
along the root axis of barley  with a
high degree of spatial resolution.

        2

3.

 
 
polyvinylchloride-membrane based anion
selective electrode  used for
continuous registration of pH with salicylate as the indicator probe.

 
 
Electro-
analytical technique

 
 
Salicylate sensitive ISE

 
 
Rhodo- pseudomonas sphaeroides specie

 
 
Salicylate ion

 
 
R. sphaeroides strain  was grown anaerobically at high light
intensity in at 30°C. Cells were harvested 
and washed seven times at room temperature in a standard buffer. The
standard buffer was pH 7.0.A PVC membrane was prepared which is sensitive to
anion. Measurements of pH were performed relative to a standard calomel
electrode.

 
 
The anion electrode responds to
salicylate concentration
above 400 micro meter with a Nernstian
sensitivity. Below 400the response 
decreases  so that the
sensitivity of the electrode is less than 10 mV per decade change at conc. of
the anion of 50 micro M.

 
 
The salicylate-sensitive ion-selective
electrode  can conveniently be used for
pH measurements.

 
            3
 
 
 

4.

 ion selective electrode used for estimation
of calcium in apple fruit and binding of calcium by cell wall

Electroanalytical technique

Ca ion selective electrode.

Malus domestica (Apple fruit juice)

Calcium ion

Apple fruit were stored  at 2°C until analyzed. Radial segments were
formed. Six 10 g aliquots were weighed from the suspension  was diluted with 10 ml water and 0.05 ml
100 mM calcium chloride standard was added. The apple samples were held with
gentle agitation for 30 min at room temperature. Samples were analyzed for
calcium by atomic absorption.

A fraction of 10 to 20% of the total
calcium in apple was detected by the ion selective electrode, when calibrated
with a series of pure calcium chloride standards.

The Ca ISE used successfully for the
binding of calcium to apple cell walls and its estimation.

        4

5.

 
 
A Hydrogen Ion-Selective
Liquid-Membrane Microelectrode used for Measurement of the Vacuolar pH of
Plant Cells in Suspension Culture.

 
 
Electroanalytical technique

 
 
Hydrogen Ion selective liquid membrane
microelectrode.

 
 
Plant Cell vacuoles in Suspension
Culture.

 
 
H+ Conc.

 
 
The microelectrodes were prepared.
They were calibrated by adding  buffer
solutions having various pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.5. EMF measurements
were carried out   with a dual-channel
high-impedance electrometer.

 
 
Microelectrode with tip diameters in
the range 0.3-0.6 pm   are shown to be
suitable for  measurement of vacuolar
pH in plant cells.

 
 
The electrode found to be appropriate
for vacuolar PH measurement.

 
 
       5

6.

Development, Characterization, and
Application of a Cadmium-Selective microelectrode for the estimation  of Cadmium Fluxes in Roots of Thlaspi
Species and Wheat.

Electroanalytical technique

Cadmium- ion Selective Microelectrode

Thlaspi
Species and Wheat.

Cadmium ions

The capacity  of the Cd+2 electrode to behave against
other ions was evaluated using two methods. The first method  involved evaluating the electrode’s
performance in the absence of Cd+2. The second approach used MPM
which is the method of choice for calculating selectivity coefficients when
the electrode does not exhibit a Nernstian response to changes in interfering
ion activity.

. The electrode was selected  for selectivity and was shown to be at
least 1000 times more selective for Cd+2 than for any of other
potentially interfering ions. The ratio between the experimental and the
theoretical slopes yielded a 55% efficiency for the vibrating Cd+2
microelectrode system..

The Cd+2-selective
microelectrode will permit detailed investigations of heavy-metal ion
transport in plant roots.

       6

7.

Construction and evaluation of ion
selective electrodes for estimation of nitrate with a summing operational
ampli?er and their applications.  to
tobacco analysis

Potentiometry

Nitrate-selective electrode.

Tobacco Specie

Nitrate ions

The potentials were measured with a potentiometer
which is 0.1 mV sensitive.  For pH
determinations the combined glass electrode was used. The measurements were
carried out in double-walled cells at 
0.2°C temperature.

The limit of detection of the direct
potentiometric method developed was found to be 0.18 g kg?1  and average %age was 0.6 and 100.3%.

The electrodes successfully used in
the determination of nitrate in different types of tobacco.

          7

8.

Potentiometric determination of iron
by using a F ion selective electrode.

Potentiometry

F- ion selective electrode
and Apple II-ISE intelligent Ion Analyzer.

mineral samples

     
Iron

The pH of solution is 3 which is
controlled by TISAB that is composed of glycine, nitric acid and sodium
nitrate. The fluoride-ISE used with 10-3M  sodium fluoride saturated by silver
chloride. This is used as internal solution. The cell potentials were
measured with the Apple II-ISE intelligent ion Analyzer having 0.1 mV
resolution.

The range for determining iron is 2.0
x 10-5 N close to 1.0 x 10-2 and the optimum range is
2.0 x 10-4 N close to 1.0 x
l0-2M.

The electrodes  has been used successfully for the
determination of iron in mineral samples.

           8

9.

 Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrode used for
estimation of inorganic  fluoride in
blood.

Electroanalytical technique

Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrode.

Blood samples

Fluoride ions

The fluoride ion-selective electrode
was used in combination with a single-junction silver/silver chloride
reference electrode and the cell potentials were measured with lonalyzer. The
temperature of solutions was  0.20C
by adjusting room temperature.

For whole samples with fluorinated
drinking water, the fluoride ion conc. was 20 to 60 microg/L.

The electrodes  has been used successfully for the
determination of fluoride in blood samples.

       9

10.

The estimation of cobalt(II) in
solution by using a dynamic electrode.

Electroanalytical technique

cobalt-selective electrode

blood sample
water and beer samples.

Cobalt ions

All potentiometric measurements were
made at 250C.The digital potentiometer used. The Co(II)-selective
membrane electrode is used in conjunction with a double junction Ag/AgCl
reference electrode. The boiling double-distilled water was used.

The electrode shows a Nernstian slope
at 1.0 mV per decade for Co+2 ions over  conc. range from 1.1 x 10-7 to
1.0 x 10-1mol/L  at pH
2.0–8.0.

Electrode shows excellent
discrimination towards Co+2 ion in the presence of other common
cations.

      10

                                                                                                                                                                                

 

R 1:       Alenka Koblar, Gasper
Tavcar, Maja  Ponikvar-Svet  (2012) ‘Estimation of  Fluoride ion 
in tea of different  kindes  and the exposure of fluoride to humans’

.Food Chemistry ,vol.130
, 286–290.

R 2:       Gordon H. Henriksen, D. Raj Raman, Larry
P. Walker, and Roger M. Spanswick (1992) ‘Ion-Selective Microelectrodes used
for estimation of net fluxes of ammonium and nitrate at the surface of Barley
roots’ Plant Physiol. Vol.99, 734-747.

R 3:     J.Klaas , 
Hellingwerf and Peter van Hoorn (1985) ‘Polyvinylchloride-membrane based
anion selective electrode  used for
continuous registration of pH with salicylate as the indicator probe’
Journal  of Biochemical  and Biophysical Methods, vol.11, 83-93

R 4:    Michael 
Knee , Pawan  Srivastava (1995)
‘ion selective electrode used for estimation of calcium in apple fruit and
binding of calcium by cell wall’  Postharvest
Biology  and  Technology , vol.5, 19-27

R 5:     C.Armen ,Kurkdjian and  Helene Barbier-Brygoo (1983) ‘A Hydrogen
Ion-Selective Liquid-Membrane Microelectrode used for Measurement of the
Vacuolar pH of Plant Cells in Suspension Culture’ Analytical biochemistry ,
vol.132, 96-104.

 

R 6:     A.M Pineros , J. E. Shaff, and L. V.
Kochian  (1998)  ‘Development, Characterization, and
Application of a Cadmium-Selective microelectrode for the estimation  of Cadmium Fluxes in Roots of Thlaspi Species
and Wheat ‘ Plant Physiol,vol.116 ,1393–1401.

R 7 :   R.
Perez-Olmos, A. Rios,  J.R. Fernande,
R.A.S. Lapa , J.L.F.C. Lima (2001) ‘ Construction and evaluation of ion
selective electrodes for estimation of nitrate with a summing operational
ampli?er and their applications  to
tobacco analysis’ Talanta, vol.53, 741–748.

R 8:     S.
Bingyao  , Y.Yingzhi ,  Hongwu Huang and  Yan 
Bait (1993) ‘ Potentiometric determination of iron by using a F ion
selective electrode’

Talanta,  Vol 40, 
No 6,pp  891-895.

R 9:     Erik Klesa (1987) ‘ Fluoride Ion-Selective
Electrode used for estimation of inorganic 
fluoride in blood’ Clinical chemistry,Vol. 33, No. 2,  253.

R 10:     D.S. Tyagi and Arpit Sing (2013) ‘The
estimation of cobalt(II) in solution by using a dynamic electrode’ Journal of
the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, 1:3, 177-      187.

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