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Sean Magers                                                                                                                                Magers 1Mr. McKownGovernment5 December 2017The Progressive Era Amendments     The Progressive Era started with progressivism and the Progressive movement that started with our 26th president, Theodore Roosevelt. Progressivism was continued with the presidency of President Taft and President Wilson. This Era consisted of different ideas and reformist groups looking for change. The purpose was to correct social issues such as women suffrage, education, factory working conditions, industrialization, and child labor( parry,Sarah). It also encouraged political reforms such as attacking bribery and corruption and the regulation of Big Business and corporations.      The progressives believed that the government should take action and solve the problems of society like protecting the welfare of Americans by conservation and environmental reforms. Theodore Roosevelt influenced men and women called muckrakers to lead the Progressive movement. Some of the famous muckrakers are Jacob Riis, John Dewey, Lester Ward, Frank Norris, Ida Tarbell, Thomas Nast, Charlotte Gilman, Upton Sinclair, Edward Russel, Alice Paul, and Jane Addams(Parry Sarah). The 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th amendments were the main amendments during the Progressive Era that had the biggest impact. These amendments involved income tax, popular elections of senators, prohibition of liquor, and women’s right to vote.                                                                                                                                                      Magers 2   The 16th amendment was ratified in 1913 and played a big role in building a strong federal government and made a nationwide income tax possible. It’s the federal government’s largest                                                                                                                                                        source of income. It had a more stable income than tariffs. After the civil war the industry and financial markets of the eastern United States prospered. On the other hand farmers in the south and the west suffered from getting low prices for their products. However they were forced to pay high prices for manufactured goods. The farmers formed political organizations such as the Grange, the Greenback Party, the National Farmers’ Alliance, and the People’s Party. These groups proposed various solutions including a graduated income tax.     Congress has the power to collect taxes, duties, and imposts and exercises. Most of the states require their residents to pay a state income tax, but not all of the states have this policy. If a citizen doesn’t have a state tax they still have to pay federal tax. All citizens and resident of the United States must pay the federal income tax. Most residents fill out a tax return which is the form that taxpayers must file with the taxing authority which details the taxpayer’s income, expenses, deductions, exemptions, and calculations of taxes. The income tax that a person is required to pay is determined based off of what the earn.     The seventeenth amendment was the first thing to be changed in the constitution that didn’t have to do with giving Americans rights, changing power in the federal government, and elections of presidents. The structure of congress in the constitution had not been touched until 1791. The seventeenth amendment removed the power of state legislatures being able to choose U.S. senators. James Madison believed that this amendment gave the states a “double advantage”. He claimed that it favored a select appointment and gave the state governments a                                                                                                                                                    Magers 3more important role in congress. George Mason claimed that it gave the states a source and power of self defense against the power of the federal government.  The original process of                                                                                                                                                     having state legislatures elect senators caused a widespread corruption and people started to lose faith in the government. The Progressive Era called for a change by installing the seventeenth amendment.     The seventeenth amendment was proposed in 1912 and was ratified in 1913 and is the direct election of state senators(kids law). The senate is one of the two houses in our United States government. The senate is composed of 100 members. There are 2 senators from each state that make up that 100. Each senator serves a six year term in their position and they are elected by the states. Each senator in the house has only one vote in congress. Any person that can vote in a state election can vote on a state senator. If a senator leaves his or her office they can be replaced by a person that is appointed by the governor. The governor is only allowed to pick the new person if the state agrees that the governor has the authority.     The states didn’t completely agree to the terms of the amendment. They believed that their power to influence the federal government was being taken away by the federal government(kids law). They believed that their interests could no longer be heard in  the legislature. They thought this because the senators had become distant from their state government and the states disagreed with this. There was a lot of debate that went into this. The only reason that this amendment is still around today is because of its popularity when it was first ratified in 1913. The eighteenth amendment was passed by Congress on December eighteenth 1917. It was ratified January sixteenth 1919. This amendment was also the only                                                                                                                                                        Magers 4amendment that was ratified years later by the twenty-first amendment on December fifth           1933. This amendment prohibited the manufacture, sale, or the transportation of intoxicating liquors. However, this amendment did not prohibit the consumption, private possession, or production for one’s own consumption. The eighteenth amendment was set for a one year time delay before it was activated(history.com). They also set a seven year time limit for the ratification from the states on this amendment. This amendment finally took effect on January sixth 1920.     This amendment was surprisingly popular and was accepted by the people when it was first started in 1920. In fact some of the states had already started banning alcohol way before this amendment was passed and sent into effect. Religious activists, most famously known to be women but also men, had blamed alcohol for violence and other problems that were affecting families all across America. These groups would take multiple weapons like axes, and would attack saloons and other places that would sell and store alcohol. They would go to these places just to destroy all of the stashes of alcohol. These groups did all of these things just to keep alcohol off of the streets and help stop the violence in all of the homes in America. Their main goal as a group was to make society a better place by eliminating violence in homes and families. The eighteenth amendment was actually inspired and motivated by some of these activists groups and the things that they did(history.com).  They based the amendment off of their goals to outlaw alcohol.     The eighteenth amendment wasn’t always as popular as it was when it first started in 1920. When it took effect for the first time in 1920 it was a huge failure across the nation. People                                                                                                                                                        Magers 5found many ways to avoid following the rules of the eighteenth amendment to their best ability. Regular people would find criminals to buy alcohol from them when they couldn’t find it anywhere else. These criminals made a fortune during the progressive era just selling alcohol                                                                                                                                            illegally. The whole idea of the eighteenth amendment was to do good in the homes of American families and instead of that it only caused worse situations. It caused illegal selling of alcohol and violence from the activists group who thought that they were doing good for the people.     Beginning in the 1800s, women fought for the birth given right to vote. This goal took women many decades to accomplish. Women would work tirelessly to gain the right to vote and all of their strategies that they had to achieve this goal varied. Some women pushed to pass suffrage acts in every state. Some women took male-voting laws to court. Militants used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. The opponents of all of these actions would hackle, jail, and physically abuse the women who pushed these suffrage acts for women’s rights to vote. These brave women fought through all of the odds and continued to push for change and were granted the respect that they deserve. All of their hard work paid off with the passing of the nineteenth amendment.     The nineteenth amendment is one of the most important amendments in the United States Constitution. This amendment finally gave women the right to vote. The fifthteenth amendment made it illegal for the federal to state government to deny any American the right to vote(Finland.com). This amendment had totally bypassed giving women the right to vote. Then the nineteenth amendment was made and it made it so it was illegal for any citizen, regardless                                                                                                                                                         Magers 6of gender, to be denied the right to vote. This amendment to allow women to vote is known as the suffrage movement. Two key figures during the suffrage movement included Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton(findlaw.com). The suffrage movement was active during the Civil War but the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifthteenth amendments didn’t cover women’s right to vote. I took a total of forty one years before the government would even consider ratifying the nineteenth amendment. The nineteenth amendment officially became part of the constitution on August 18th 1920.     All of these amendments played great roles in the progressive era. Without all of these amendments there would be no progressive era. I think that the nineteenth amendment had the biggest effect on the progressive era and the constitution as a whole. Giving the women the right to vote makes all Americans equal no matter gender. It serves as equality among people. I disagree with the eighteenth amendment because it caused more problems than it fixed them. It caused people to go behind others back to buy alcohol. There was too much of a dispute over a beverage so banning it in my opinion was no the best idea. The seventeenth amendment gave the people a better way to represent themselves because they get to choose who they want to represent them in congress. They don’t have to just sit back and watch someone else appoint someone who won’t do as good of a job. With this amendment and the nineteenth the people get to express their opinion freely. The sixteenth amendment is perfect in my eyes. It keeps the federal government running and there is no shortage of money to worry about. The government is steady and the people don’t lose that much of their checks depending on how much that they earn. My favorite amendment is the nineteenth because it shows everyone that                                                                                                                                                         Magers 7all people are equal and that is the way that the world should be. We are all people and nothing is going to change that so why women were treated so differently in the past. We are all equal and that is how we all need to be treated. Works Cited*”The 16th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.” National Constitution Center – The 16th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, constitutioncenter.org/interactive-constitution/amendments/amendment-xvi.*Staff, LII. “16th Amendment.” LII / Legal Information Institute, 12 Nov. 2009, www.law”17th *Amendment – Kids | Laws.Com.” Kids, kids.laws.com/17th-amendment..cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxvi.*History.com Staff. “18th and 21st Amendments.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 2010, www.history.com/topics/18th-and-21st-amendments.*”Nineteenth Amendment – U.S. Constitution.” Findlaw, constitution.findlaw.com/amendment19.html.*Parry, Sarah. “The lp Era: Voice-Practice/Voice Document.” ESC: English Studies in Canada, vol. 33, no. 4, 2009, pp. 169–180., doi:10.1353/esc.0.0092.     

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