SE109 caused by diabetes is due to

SE109 case study
In my case study the patient has been diagnosed with types 2 diabetes as well as kidney failure. So I will be talking about what it means to have these conditions and how it affects the body.
symptoms
the symptoms for type 2 diabetes can take years to develop and show, these symptoms differ from type 1 diabetes. type 2 is a condition in which there is no cure for, once the body has taken on the symptoms of diabetes it is unable to return to its previous state. one of the most important part of diabetes is how early the symptoms can be seen, the earlier they are noticed will allow for better treatment and prevent the condition from developing. the way most people find out they have type 2 diabetes is through being tested for other conditions, this is because the symptoms are not easy to see. 

some of the symptoms that can be spotted are feeling tired throughout the day. the reason that this is caused by diabetes is due to the body not being able to produce the correct amount of insulin, this limits the amount of energy that each cell in the body gets. the less energy a cell gets the less energy we have in the body overall. another reason that tiredness can be tied to diabetes is there is a low level of blood glucose in the body, this can cause tiredness. there are different ways a person can feel tired, this is why the symptoms can take a while to show. one way is a lack of energy, this could affect different people in different way depending on how they feel on an average day to day basis. another way would be finding it hard to complete simple tasks which they need to in order to carry on normally with their lives, this could be the reason why someone gets checked for diabetes. there is also the mental side to tiredness, this is in the way that someone feels as if they are depresses and not feeling like they want to in their life. 

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polyphagia is when someone has a extreme appetite. this ties in with symptoms of type 2 diabetes as they experience an increased appetite. the reason they experience this is because the body has abnormally high levels of blood glucose, the cells don’t have any access to the glucose in the blood meaning they don’t have the correct amount of energy. the cells in the body need energy as they are the main source for digesting and breaking down the food consumed which gives us the energy we need to do the task at hand. the reason someone would go to the doctor with this problem is if they were consuming more food than they would normally, but not feeling like they have to correct amount of energy. 

another symptom is having frequent urination. the average amount for an adult is 1-2 litres a day, however if someone has diabetes they may be producing 3 or more a day. if this is not treated early enough it can cause severe dehydration, this leads to kidney problems.  the reason why someone may have polyuria is my drinking over the recommend amount of one drink, this can be things such as alcohol or caffeine. 

feeling abnormally thirsty 
blurred vision 
itchy skin 
slow healing of cuts or wounds 
sudden weight loss or muscle mass 
 (1) 
(1 –  https://www.diabetes.co.uk/type2-diabetes-symptoms.html )

diagnosis 
there are a few ways that someone can be tested for diabetes, they can also differentiate between type 1 and type 2. 
glycated hemoglobin test 
this test is a blood test which tells you the average sugar level you contain in your blood in your last 2-3 months, this way it gets an average. the aim of the test is to measure the amount of haemoglobin in the blood line there is. normal levels will be 5.7 and below, however if the test comes back with 6.5 or higher this means that they have diabetes. one problem with this test is that it cant be done if someone has an haemoglobin variant or they are pregnant. however there are some other tests that can be done. random blood sugar test – a blood sample will be taken, normally from a finger, it is then tested for your blood sugar level. if your score is 200mg/dL or higher this means that you have diabetes. 

kidney failure 
kidneys are one of the vital organs in our bodies, the blood from our body travels through the kidneys, from here they absorb all of the nutrients and anything else needed, this circuits back round and into the body. they decided how much percentage of water and electrolytes they want to pass through as urine. the kidneys have an important role in diabetes as many people will become very dehydrated due to their condition, the kidneys will hold onto as much water as possible so the person doesn’t become severely dehydrated and cause harm to themselves. 
what can cause kidney failure?
full kidney failure can only occur when both kidneys have completely failed, once this happens the only way to restore the body is to have a transplant. however if only one kidney has failed, a body can continue on as normal functioning on one kidney. 

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