Q1. in the world which means they’re mostly

Q1.
Ancient cultural systems produce differences in ways of perceiving and thinking
about world. East Asians prefer dialectical thinking whereas Americans prefer
logical deterministic thinking. Westerners show analytic thinking and East
Asians show holistic thinking. Research indicate that East Asians are more
holistic on average than North Americans. Holistic thinking fundamentally
involves high attention to context, whereas analytic thinking fundamentally
involves focusing on central objects in relative isolation from their context (de
Oliveira & Nisbett, 2017 ). Holistic and analytic thinking styles differ in
several ways. Holistic thinkers, such as many East Asians, are more likely to
be influenced by contextual cues when making judgments (Choi, Dalal,
Kim-Prieto, & Park, 2003; Masuda, Ellsworth, et al., 2008), categorize
objects based on relationships or resemblance (Ji, Zhang, & Nisbett, 2004),
and assign causality to situations (Morris & Peng, 1994). They are also
more likely to be dialectical; they tend to accept contradiction in reasoning
(Peng & Nisbett, 1999) and expect the world to change in a cyclical manner
(Ji, Nisbett, & Su, 2001). Analytic thinkers, such as many Westerners,
focus more on central objects than on the background when making judgments,
categorize objects based on rules rather than relationship or resemblance, and
assign causality to traits and dispositions. They are less dialectical; they
embrace formal logic and expect stable trends in the world which means they’re mostly
logical.

In
my opinion, due to dialectic thinking, Asians accept the authority and they’re
mostly efficient followers and problem solvers. However the Europeans, due to
logistic determinism, challenge the authority and question the common knowledge.
Therefore they are usually critical thinkers. 

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Q2. Habitual
use of linguistic categories and grammatical structure drives people’s
cognitive representation of the world and reality. Language is cognitively
associated with cultural scripts, norms, and practices (Chen & Bond, 2010).
Language influences thought and behavior by evoking a culturally congruent
cognitive mindset. when individuals acquire different languages, they also
encode different cultural systems associated with using each language. Priming
one of their languages may activate the corresponding culture-specific
cognitive style and in turn affect the resulting perception and behavior. One
of the major controversies is relativism versus universalism. Whereas the
universalist perspective emphasizes similarities across different language
groups, the relativist perspective highlights particulars and differences
between languages. Language use guides people’s perceptual focus toward
different aspects of the self and the world, and influences the way they see,
think, and act.

 In my opinion, there is an huge effect of the
differences of languages. According to the language, our perception is shaped
and determined. Since i’m not familiar with the two cultures i cannot say about
their general perception of guilt but there should be the effect of language’s
features such as syntax and semantics on their perception. Also there may be an
effect of their histories. They both have different histories and Poland have
Nazi history. So these differences must have an effect on the perception of
guilt in both countries. In order to make my claims conclusive we may need their
answers to what they understand from the meaning of guilt and their social
norms about guilt also their language perception differences.

 

Q3.  Collectivistic cultures such as those of East
Asia emphasize relationships, group harmony, and group goals over individual
goals (Triandis, 2001). People are understood to be embedded in context as part
of a whole (Oyserman, Coon, & Kemmelmeier, 2002). Consequently, daily
living in a collectivistic society demands frequent attention to context for
successful navigation in the world. In other words, it demands and rewards
holistic thinking. Individualistic cultures emphasize autonomy, personal
agency, and personal goals (Triandis, 2001). People in individualistic cultures
such as those of North America are considered to be discrete and stable
entities that are not as influenced by context (Oyserman et al., 2002). Thus,
contextual demands are relatively less pressing, supporting a more analytic
thinking style when navigating the world. For example, more development may
lead to higher individualism, which may, in turn, reinforce more analytic modes
of thinking. Likewise, modes of subsistence, settlement history, and social
class may all shape social orientation, which in turn may shape cognitive style.

Cultures
differ in how individuals view the self (e.g., Markus & Kitayama, 1991;
Triandis, 1989). In individualistic cultures, the self is characterized as autonomous
and agentic; in collectivistic cultures, the self is characterized as connected
and communal. Cultures also differ accordingly in how individuals behave:
Viewing the self as independent or interdependent is manifested in different
behavioural styles. In individualistic cultures, people prioritize personal
goals, emphasize unique attributes, and distinguish themselves *Correspondence
should be addressed to Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Department of Applied Social
Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Hong
Kong (email: [email protected]). DOI:10.1111/bjso.12196 723 from others; in
collectivistic cultures, people share common goals, conform to social norms,
and value interpersonal relationships. The desire to obtain positive feedback
from close others is evident in both Americans and Chinese (Gaertner,
Sedikides, & Cai, 2012) Western or individualistic cultures construe self
as independent, separate entities 
Non-western or collectivistic cultures composite construal of self;
individual is interdependent and inseparable from social context

I
believe that in collectivist cultures brainstorming is easy for individuals.
Although i have problems about talking in front of people according to my
observations mostly people state their opinions easily. Also it make sense that
mutual support is really important for a person to not being shy. In
collectivist cultures mutual support is valid.