Progressive theory offers an opportunity to explore ideas

Progressive
utilization theory is formulated by Indian Philosopher Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar in
1959. It promotes economic self-reliance, cooperatives, environment balance and
universal spiritual values. ProUt theory offers an opportunity to explore ideas
to achieve goals. ProUT theory provides a brief introduction to some aspects
like economy, cooperatives, food security, sustainable agriculture, proper
utilization of natural and human resources, ecological sustainability. ProUT is
a set of dynamic concepts which can be applied through citizens and leaders to
develop their region prosper and achieve self-reliance in an ecological way.
ProUT also suggest that five minimum necessities: food including water,
clothing, housing, medical care and education must be provided to the people of
all nations in a sustainable manner, hence future generations can also meet
their minimum necessities.

ProUT
also says that physical resources are limited therefore we have to make
decisions in an organized and sustainable manner; so that these resources can
we use with equity and can leave for future generations. It is also proposed in
ProUT that governments at national levels should promote self-Supporting
decentralized local economics. ProUT supports the best utilization of the
earth’s resources with economical and mechanical efficiency and also protecting
the natural environment. According to ProUT, natural resources are gifted by
nature, these belongs to everyone and should be used for the welfare of all.
ProUT includes ecological perspective of traditional people that we all belongs
to natural world, and we have a duty and responsibility to utilize the earth in
a sustainable way and to equally distribute natural resources for thr welfare
of all.

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The
water resources management activities are changing by the time. Cortner and
Moote identified the emergence of paradigm shift in water resources management.
They uses classical model of a paradigm shift to explore the changes that are
occurring in the domain of land and water resources management. Two principles
were used to define new paradigm in water management, these are ecosystem
management and collaborative decision making. Applying these two principles
will reduce the ecological as well as social problem of water scarcity. The
present study will be go through the perspective of ecosystem and evolvement of
community in the decision making process of water management.

Integrated
watershed management is highlighted by Ward (1995, P2) it argues that water
management has undergoing through considerable changes in 1990s. Past
activities like flood control, water supply recreation, irrigation and waste
water management have resulted into the creation of large institutions. These
institutions are continuously finding effective ways to meet the constantly
evolving water related needs of the society. The present study will discuss the
role of different institutions and departments in the field of water supply,
conservation and management. It will be also an attempt to find out the role of
these institutions, organizations and departments to meet the increasing demand
of water in 21st century. It will be also interesting to analyze
that how much effective are the activities of these institutions to cope up
with effects of climate change. The study follows an integrated approach to
address the uses of water resources management. Gliek (2000, p 127) also
discuss the changing water paradigm. He argues that a shift in the water
management not comes easily; they faced strong opposition. These shifts are not
universally accepted and not be permanent. There are many components to
changing water paradigm like shift from primary sources of water to finding new
sources to meet new demands. Traditional planning approaches are being
dominated but new methods are also being developed to meet the demands of
increasing population. The planning agencies are exploring efficiency
improvements, implementing options for managing demand, reduce demand and
supply gaps and meet the future needs. In these days’ water and food security
is receiving more attention as the food experts begin to encompass the
realities of water availability. Therefore all the changes are showing a real
shift in the way humans think about water resources. Now a great emphasis is
given to ecological values into water policies.

We
are living in an era where human beings dominate the planet earth and have
become a major force which is driving trends like climate change, degradation
of natural resources and degradation of biodiversity. Growing water scarcity is
the issue of great concern in this context. Today we are interdependent and
period of isolation is finished. The actions of some people who are wealthy and
consuming a lot of resources are also affecting those people who have not so
much wealth to utilize resources. But as we all are global citizens, we must
accept responsibilities to reduce poverty and hunger, water scarcity, depletion
of ecosystem and other natural resource. The sustainable development goals are
designed for few decades to recognize these profound interdependencies.

The
challenge of water is not only a challenge to food production but also a
challenge for meeting other social goals. It is stated in agenda 21 that there
is a need of integrated approach to water resources management and development.
Integrated water resources management (IWRM) has become important. However
there is no any specific Millennium Development Goal (MDG) focusing on water
resources management. It is only assumed under Goal 7 on environment
sustainability. Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) without security
of water resources on which life depends will be a daunting challenge. The
integrated approach is required to achieving SDGs; combating climate change, water
energy and food security.

Although,
effective progress has been made in past decades to reduce poverty, hunger and
improving health of people, but still humanity faces a number of socioeconomic
and sustainable challenges. These challenges are becoming more urgent by the
time. Sustainable provision of equitable access to enough good quality water
for all is necessary to end poverty and hunger. Any developmental agenda cannot
be sustainable if much attention is not paid on sustainable water management. At
present water scarcity is a major source of stress at global level. World
Economic Forum (WEF), 2015 found in a survey that water crisis is third major
global systematic risk. In July 2015 Sustainable Development Goals were
adopted. There are 17 SDGs are concerned with economic, social, ecological and
institutional aspects. Before the adoption of SDGs there were Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) which were concerned with sustainable development.

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