problem five sections discussed about metaethics and views

problem that I learned about, which made me wonder if that is how we think about majority of the times was the Euthyphro Problem. This is the problem which questions that if an action is wrong because God forbids it or does God forbids it because it is wrong? So may have thought that the right answers to questions of moral principles are known from God and his will. The name, Euthyphro dilemma, comes from Plato’s Euthyphro dialogues and from Euthyphro one is left with the struggle of giving an explanation to why God’s commands are authoritative. Man cannot provide for his simplest physical need without a process of thought. No perceptions or instinct will answer that for him. It is only because man has a will- that is, because he has desires, passions, wants, inclinations, or in short, because he pursues ends or objects of desire- that any distinctions of good and evil ever arises in the first place. Things would acquire the status of being good and evil only if someone- anyone- cares about them one way or the other. Reasons tells us what means we can best use to achieve our ends, but the ends themselves are determined by the will. Some metaethical views that I learned about are naturalism which says moral properties are part of the natural world, and can be reduced to natural and non-ethical properties. Non-naturalism says that moral properties cannot be reduced to non-ethical parts. A theological belief is discussed known as supernaturalism, that is a force or a power other than man or nature. However, in general the five sections discussed about metaethics and views of metaethics, views such as, cognitivism and non-cognitivism. Cognitivist theories say moral claims are expressing or attempting to express true or false claims about reality, whereas non-cognitivists do not think moral claims are attempts to describe reality.Concepts that are important:Non-cognitivismCognitivismNaturalism- says moral properties can be reduced to natural and non-ethical propertiesNon-naturalism- vice-versa to naturalism, therefore they can’t be reduced to non-ethical properties. Supernaturalism-Relativism- relativists do believe when someone makes a moral claim they are expressing a belief they have about reality. They say moral judgements express beliefs about something relative and are not objective or universally true. Metaethics- is the subject that deals with the meanings of ethical terms. Cultural relativism- says moral judgements express beliefs which describe the cultural beliefs of the society. Moral realism- says moral values are true regardless of what individual thinks. Individuals may acquire knowledge about what moral truths are. And moral values are not determined or even dependent on the individual. Moral values merely describe actions in nature as either good or bad. Quasi-realism- accepts moral claims project emotional attitudes as if they are real properties, G.E Moore- taught good can’t be redifined to be something like, pleasant or happiness. They can only be described as morally good or bad but can’t themselves be the essence of moral goodness.

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