People’s by authority. Obedience as one of the

     People’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors are
impressed by being of other people. This is defined as social influence
(Allport, 1968). People try to change others’ behavior, thoughts and feelings by
different ways. For instance, pressure, command, persuasion are some ways of social
influence. There are three types of social influence which are compliance,
conformity and obedience. It is called obedience to the type defined by
authority. Obedience as one of the forms of social influence is acting according to
the order of someone else that is authority. Without such an order, it is
assumed that the person will not move in this way (S. A. McLeod, “Obedience to Authority”, 2007).

       One of the basic elements
of Milgram’s experiment and in our daily life the authorities that we obey
unwittingly give direction to many behaviors (Gary L. Ford/ConnieBird, Life is Sales, Kanada, 2008).  For example, a
doctor with an authority figure depending on his or her status has great influence
and credibility. There
is one study of obedience to authority conducted by Stanley Milgram in 1962. Milgram’s obedience study was carried out in the
laboratory of Yale University. Experimenter did not explain actual aim of this
experiment to participants. (M.D.A.  Freeman, “Milgram’s Obedience to Authority,
Cilt 1, 1979).  In this study, experimenter needs that two people
in the laboratory with himself. One of them is learner who was learn a list of
paired associates, and other one is teacher who administered an electric shock
to the learner every time when the learner gave a wrong answer. Experimenter
was an authority. Participants always
teacher, confederates were learner. The learner was taken into a room and
electrodes were attached to his arms. The experimenter informed the participant
that the electroshock did not cause permanent damage despite suffering. But the
learner explained that he had heart disease. After that teacher and
experimenter return to the next room. The teacher had an electric generator
that he used in every false answer given by the learner. Electric shock
generator had switches which are labeled by from ‘slightly shock’ to ‘danger:
severe shock’.  ‘XXX’ is labeled between
volts of 435 and 450. The teacher started to ask the questions to learner and
applying electrical shock to every wrong answer he gave. At 120 volt learner
started shouts that electric shock are painful. As the voltage increases, the
loudness of the learner increases. After 330 volts learner fall silent. After
that participant did not want to continue experiment. To kept the participant
continues, authority used some verbal proud such as please continue, experiment
needs that you continue, you have no other choice, you must go on (Milgram, “Behavioral Study of Obedience”). Experimental warnings are made in this order, and one
warning is passed when a warning is unsuccessful. As a result of the experiment, 26 of the 40 subjects (65%)
were found to have applied the highest voltage of 450, despite their conflict
with their consciences (Milgram, “Behavioral
Study of Obedience”, s. 371). Milgram repeated the
experiment at Bridgeport. Because Yale University’s prestige thought that the
effect triggered his obedience behavior. In Bridgeport, 48% of participants
went to the end and gave the strongest shock. In the experiment, a number of
conditions regarding the obedience of the participant were changed and the
participant tried to answer the question whether the obedience to the authority
would be changed by ploximity the participant. When the ratio of
obedience to opposition is examined; the proportion of respondents to obedience
was 34% in the remote feedback condition and 70% in the touch proximity (Milgram, “Some
Conditions of Obedience and Disobedience to Authority”, s. 61-62).  The fact that the spatial proximity
between the student and the participant has increased disobedience rates has
led to the need to investigate how the affinity between the author and the
investigator will influence. Obedience decreased when the researcher moved away
(Milgram, “Some Conditions of Obedience and Disobedience to Authority”, s.
65-66). According to which obedience can be linked to many situations, such as
proximity to authority, proximity to the victim or make people justify their
behavior.

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       Throughout our lives we
encounter various authorities.  At
a young age we listen to the words of the elders who are more knowledgeable than
we are. As we grow up, there are teachers and bosses who guide us; we are
conditioned to do what the people who are more knowledgeable or authoritative
than we do. When we mature, it is now common to observe the orders of the
authorities, so we have lost our sensitivity now. Because, from a young age, obedience to authority has been rewarded and
this leads us to do what we do without thinking.