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Our brain is largely made up of nerves cells.  The nerve cells in our brain and spinal core connect and communicate together with the nerves in your eyes. They make up our central nervous system . One of CNS higher functions is to constantly communicate back and forth with it self and to your body to allow you think , breath, feel , see and navigate the world among many other things. But what if your nerve cells stopped talking to each other in the usual way and the social network broke down? . Something similar happens in people with multiple sclerosis. MS is a condition that affects your brain and spinal cord. MS is a disease of the central nervous system and it is usually diagnosed between 20-40 years of age.  Its a  cause of non traumatic disability in young adults . To understand what MS does to the CNS and body . Lets take a closer look at how nerves cells work. 

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How Nerve cells work:

Nerve cells communicate through electrical signals to send important messages. Signals start at one end and travel down this long wire like part which is called an axon . 
Axons makes up neurons and they carry nerve impulses away from the body. Each neuron has it’s own function. Neurons have axons that connects it with other neurons or muscles or glands, most axons are coated with fatty layers of myelin which is like the insulation around an actually electric wire. Neurons sends signals all trough the body in an incredible speed . Nerve signals move quickly about 100 m/s of a second for a signal to reach your toe from your brain. Thats why you don’t notice any delay when your brain tells your toes to move. This incredible speed is due to the fatty coding that surrounds them called myelin . Myelin supports the nerve cell and helps the signals move efficiently to the end of the cell. Where the message can be passed to other cells in the network. This myelin insulates the impulses and allows the nerves signals to reach their destination. 

However in the case of MS this is were the issue occurs. Our immune system is designed to fight off intruders such as bacteria , viruses and cancer cells. But in the case of MS the immune system ends up attacking the myelin and this is classified as an autoimmune disorder. This process of demyelination can lead to a build up of scar tissue.
So whats behind the nervous systems attack? As it turns out part of our own bodies is a major reason for MS. We will take a closer look at how the immune system which normally protects us can turn against the CNS and make the network break down and interrupt communication within the brain and between the CNS and the body.

The B lymphocytes plays an essential role in the autoimmune pathogenesis of MS.  B cells are one important defender in the immune system  Key function of B cells is to make antibodies. B cells are descended from stem cells in the bone marrow. During their early development in the bone marrow B cells select gene segments coding for the two proteins that make up their B cell receptor.These receptors are on the surface of the B cell and are unique to the B cell. Every mature B cell produces one kind of B cell receptor and therefore one kind of antibody.

In MS two events happen which change how B cells normally work to defend the body against enemy attacks . First the wall that keeps B cells out of the brain in healthy people breaks down. This allows some B cells to enter the central nervous system . Second , once inside the CNS rather than acting as defenders they decide for unknown reasons to attack the bodies own myelin the supportive insulation around the nerve cells in multiple ways. Plasma cells can use their antibodies to attack myelin. These antibodies can cause direct
damage or act as a homing signal that recruits other defenders in the immune system to attack myelin . B cells can also inform T cells another defender that myelin is the enemy. Both B cells and T cells send signals to other defenders to the fight which causes inflammation. 

The inflammatory process causes destruction of myelin layers and axons leading to disruption of neuron transmission. The myelin becomes damaged by inflammation and it changes the way signals move down the nerve . The CNS becomes unable to send and receive signals properly . Messages traveling along the neuron can be slowed down , distorted or even stopped all together.
 When the myelin that helps to protect your nerves gets damaged it leads to a wide range of symptoms like blurry vision , walking difficulties, cognitive changes and muscle weakness. Inflamed areas of the CNS can also become scared when the body tries to fix the problem

Scientist discovered that they could forget specific B cells that triggers the attack of myelin by making antibodies medicine that target the CD20 portion but not other type of protein. Antibodies that target only CD20 do not affect stem cells in the bone ,arrow nor the plasma cells that have been trained to target specific enemies . This means that the immune system should still be able to defend the against harm. Clinical studies have shown that antibodies that target the CD20 portion slow disease progression in people with MS and may potentially become a new treatment approach for people with ms . 
 

During the early phases of MS it is characterized by relapses most people with ms experience relapses of symptoms followed by period of times without symptoms. However no one can predict what kind of symptoms they will have , when they will happen or how long they will last . Ms never stops and can damage your CNS even when you aren’t having any symptoms

The later phase in CNS can lead to substantial disability in most patients.  One of the most frightening aspect of having ms is when you don’t know if you are going to end up becoming paralyzed . It all depends on the severity of the MS and where the damage appears to the nerve fibers.  No one can predict if they are going to become paralyzed. Since MS varies from person to person. For some people muscle weakness and fatigue can worsen over time. People with MS have different symptoms so MS can affect different part of the CNS. The rate of developing disability varies from person to person

Because the different nature of demyelination, the symptoms of MS are very diverse they can range from muscle weakness to decreased coordination, fatigue , vision problems , numbness or even paralyses. There is no cure for Multiple Sclerosis MRI scans of the brain to look for scaring can help confirm a diagnosis in most people with MS

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