Obesity relate to body fat distribution. Long-term longitudinal

Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public
health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of
several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death

Obesity is defined as a condition of abnormal or excessive fat
accumulation in adipose tissue, to the extent that health is impaired

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Until recently the relation between obesity and
coronary heart disease was viewed as indirect, ie, through covariates related
to both obesity and coronary heart disease risk, including hypertension; dyslipidemia,
particularly reductions in HDL cholesterol (abnormal lipid profile); and
impaired glucose tolerance or non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Insulin
resistance and accompanying hyperinsulinemia are typically associated with
these comorbidities. Although
most of the comorbidities relating obesity to coronary artery disease increase
as BMI increases, they also relate to body fat distribution. Long-term
longitudinal studies, however, indicate that obesity as such not only relates
to but independently predicts coronary atherosclerosis. This relation appears to exist for
both men and women with minimal increases in BMI.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is
commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults. The Body Mass Index (BMI) is widely
used for the determination of nutritional status or body composition. It is the
value obtained when the weight in kilograms is divided by the square of the
height in meters. Nutritional status is determined through BMI cut-offs values
as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) however, in recent years
some scientists in the Asia- Pacific region made recommendations that the
criteria values be modified to fit the Asian body composition, which is claimed
to be different compared to the American or European body composition. Thus the
“Asian criteria” for the determination of nutritional status based on
the BMI was born.


The cold pressor test is a widely used experimental
technique for human pain or stress induction, involving immersion of the hand or
forearm in cold water. First documented as a test of cardiovascular stress
reactivity, its application in investigation of pain perception, mechanisms,
and treatment is due to a gradually mounting painful sensation of mild to
moderate intensity. As water temperatures used are within the range considered
noxious (below 15°C), nociceptors (pain receptors) are activated and transmit
an aversive signal to the CNS. While nociception-transduction ion channels
involved have been identified, the exact mechanisms of cold pain are not fully

Chronic imbalance of the autonomic nervous system is
prevalent and potent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events including
mortality.Any factor that lead to inappropriate activation of the sympathetic
nervous system.Any factor that lead to inappropriate activation of the
sympathetic nervous system can be expected to have an adverse effect on this
measures.Any factor that augments vagal tone tends to improve outcome. Factors
linking obesity to increase BP and blood volume and cardiac output that is
caused by increased metabolic demand. There is enough previous study to prove
that sympathetic activity has been enhanced in obesity and increased vagal tone
in underweight people 


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