Obesity the risk of obtaining an obesity related

Obesity has grown so much it can now be said to have replaced smoking as the number one preventable cause of diseases in America. Even though the obese have to be responsible when deciding what and how much to eat, society is what not only created obesity but also discriminates against them. The media, food market, and the rapidly advancing technology are all factors that influence not only the increase in obesity rates, but also the psychological status of the obese.According to epidemiological studies, there is a direct correlation between BMI and the risk of obtaining an obesity related disease. The authors of “Waist Circumference and Cardiometabolic Risks….” state that men and women with a BMI greater than 30 are at a very high risk for adverse medical events (Klein, S., Allison, D. B., Heymsfield, S. B., Kelley, D. E., Leibel, R. L., Nonas, C. and Kahn, R. (2007), Waist Circumference and Cardiometabolic Risk: A Consensus Statement from Shaping America’s Health: Association for Weight Management and Obesity Prevention; NAASO, The Obesity Society; the American Society for Nutrition; and the American Diabetes Association. Obesity, 15: 1061–1067. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.632).While health care costs go up from obesity, the overall quality of service that is provided from the increase spending is also goes up. It can be said that the more money that gets injected into health care, the better it helps to improve the quality of the services provided. In addition, the increase in the cost of insurance can be expected to mean that the service provided by insurance companies are expected to help cover the costs that are associated in treating obesity. The medical expenses of obesity can range from hospital visits, medicine, and other medical luxuries. According to Mary K. Serdula, et al. (1993) a third of preschool children (26 to 41%) and about half of school aged children (42 to 63%) turned out to be obese as adults. In addition, the risk of being obese as an adult was twice as high in obese children than in the non-obese.However, even though individuals have to be responsible when deciding what they consume and how much of it, the credit for creating obesity should be given to society. The huge gap in distribution of wealth is one of the causes of obesity and where you stand determines the foods that you have access to. For instance, the low quality built environments can lead to inability to exercise which leads to accumulation of calories causing obesity. For instance, this can be seen in areas of high pollution, where it is unsafe to travel for long periods of time while being exposed to these toxic chemicals in the air. In addition, food dessert also contribute to an inability to obtain healthy foods in other words, food desserts are urban or rural low-income areas with low access to healthy nutritious foods. One reason that can cause inability to obtain nutritious food is not having enough money to own a car which in turn forces someone that lives in this area to resort to low cost unhealthy food products. Moreover, low-income areas are typically known to be areas with high levels of crime. As a result, the members of the community might fear their safety or the safety of their children due to the fact that there is so much crime being committed. For example, according to the Census Bureau, the city of Memphis, Tennessee has been recorded 1,006 violent crimes per 100,000 residents in the year of 2010.As a result, a child wanting to play outside on the swing set is more likely to be restricted by his/her parents because of fear of their safety, this in turn can cause lack of physical activity not only in children but in adults as well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)1 and the American College of Sports Medicine both encourage spending 30 minutes of physical activity if not all, on most days of the week to minimize the risk of obesity (Gordon-Larsen, P., Nelson, M. C. and Beam, K. (2005), Associations among Active Transportation, Physical Activity, and Weight Status in Young Adults. Obesity Research, 13: 868–875. doi: 10.1038/oby.2005.100). Furthermore, considering the excessive marketing of unhealthy foods, the obese cannot be fully blamed for their health status. The increasing availability of these unhealthy food products has caused competition to stir among a variety of fast food chains while also, causing a need for marketing in order to attract customers so that there is more revenue for their company. Although there are a vast variety of fast food chains that market their products in all sorts of different ways, there are also those who target a specific audience. An excellent example of this would be McDonald’s. This corporation is the world’s largest chain of hamburger restaurants in the world. Specifically, McDonald’s targets children through their marketing. For example, in the McDonald’s commercial that features animated characters from the movie “The Croods”, the corporation blatantly targets children by showing kids who are enjoying food products made by the company. The idea behind smiling children will cause other children to want to have a good time, therefore, it sprouts a desire to go and eat at this unhealthy establishment. In addition, this is not the only factor installed in this commercial that is intended to persuade its audience. The company has created an image for itself as being the ultimate family restaurant. McDonalds has created colorful playgrounds, happy meals, and toys in order to create a more attractive appearance in the eyes of children. The idea of playgrounds and toys are a kids ultimate attraction, the fast food chain provides a place to play and a new toy to unwrap. As a result, the number of children lured into this establishment is increasing.In addition, the atmosphere created is not the only technique used to attract customers. McDonald’s also shows interactions with popular figures not only through commercials, but through sponsorships as well. For example, the commercial made for the winter Olympics in 2010 shows many athletes enjoying McNuggets dipped in its “limited time offered” Chili Sauce while stating that “You don’t have to be an Olympic athlete to eat like one”. The idea behind this is that their new product is “limited” therefore, creating a need to purchase it while it lasts. Furthermore, this creates a sense of equality among their customers by conveying that if a popular figure such as an athlete, who participates in the Olympics and eats McNuggets dipped in Chili Sauce, then I too can be of high prestige.Similarly, McDonalds uses athletes in its technique of sponsorship as well by signing multi year contracts with athletes. For instance, the contract signed by LeBron James only delivers a false message. Children look up to both athletes and other popular figures; because of this they are more likely to become role models. Moreover, this technique is so effective because children tend to copy the acts of their role models. In this particular case, the contract made between this athlete, and not to mention others such as Michael Phelps, and even the entire Olympic event, only convey the concept that the key to reach peak athletic performance is by consuming food high in fat and sugar like those sold by McDonalds. Another form of advertisement that is used is the technique of helping charities. The Ronald McDonald House is an organization created by McDonald’s, the primary goal is to improve the health and well being of children. However, this is not the true intent behind this “wonderful” act. The real intent of this corporation is for publicity and is only meant to get the name of its company better known in order to attract more people into buying their food products. Moreover, one can infer from this evidence that McDonald’s will go to any extent in order to sell its products.Another aspect of the media also creates a negative influence towards obesity by means of creating an image that discriminates against them. The number of people who own a television has skyrocketed in the past years since the advancement of it has caused the prices to be reduced. Medical researchers in the United Kingdom found that for every additional hour spent watching TV the probability of becoming obese increased by 2% in 12-17 year olds (Boyce, T. (2007), The media and obesity. Obesity Reviews, 8: 201–205. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00342.x). Dr. T Boyce also states evidence from research that further supports this argument. Boyce reveals that the media often exclude or blatantly prohibit the obese from participating in Television shows or movies. Instead, the media prefers to feature skinny, attractive, and muscular actors/actresses in their televised shows. As a result, the media conveys a discriminating message when they have these people on their shows because not everybody is able to live up to these expectations. However, the small portion of obese individuals that have made their way into these shows or movies are often given roles that have the characteristics of being unpopular, unsuccessful, or unattractive. To illustrate, take a look at the Happy Madison Production, Paul Blart: Mall Cop, the character Paul Blart, despite saving the mall from being stripped of its money by intruders, is endlessly characterized as dumb, sweaty, and incompetent. Moreover, there are many scenes where one can see that Paul Blart is made fun of; for example, the “scooter pullover” scene directly shows how Paul Blart is seen as pathetic when the elderly man refused to stop when asked. Almost immediately after, we see that the elderly man decides to come to a halt, only to make a fool out of Blart as he drives off on his scooter leaving him to fall helplessly. The other idea behind this is incompetency because it is assumed that a security guard should be able to handle a situation such as this one however; in the movie, Blart has no choice but to let him go in efforts to “play off” the embarrassment after having fallen and dragged on the floor helplessly by the scooter.For an obese person to see so much hatred towards their condition can cause loss of aspirations as well as feelings of low self-esteem. As a result, such feelings of sorrow can cause stress in individuals. John Tomer introduces a couple factors from the problematic life behavioral patterns that reveal how stress is a direct cause of obesity. These patterns include “overly rapid eating, eating when one is experiencing high levels of stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of exercise”. He explains that eating rapidly in the presence of stress causes the body to release more of the cortisol hormone, which decreases the body’s sensitivity to the hormone that delivers feelings of satiety to the brain. As seen in the study conducted by Tomer of 20 pairs of twins, he found that a pair of twins who differed from other pairs of twins by more than 37 pounds had higher levels of stress hormones as well as adverse health effects. (Tomer, John. “What Causes Obesity? And Why Has It Grown So Much?.” Challenge (05775132) 54.4 (2011): 22-49. Business Source Complete. Web. 25 Oct. 2013.) (page 7 of 29).The rapid advancement of technology is also a factor that has an enormous contribution to obesity rates. According to Gordon-Larsen et al. (2005) the percentage of walking rates has declined immensely over the years. In the year 1977 the percentage of walking trips made by adults was 9.3% while in the year 1990 the same percentage dropped to 7.2% and it is only continuing to drop as the use of alternative transportation becomes more popular and available. The increase in availability of cars has grown due to the fact that the automotive industry is advancing the technology and performance of automobiles. Consumers interested in these new cars are more likely to sell their old ones at a lower price than originally paid for. Thus, giving the less wealthy class a chance in obtaining a car.Research by Amir Samimi et al. have also concluded that a 1% decrease in motor vehicle transportation can lead to a 0.4% decrease in obesity (Samimi, Amir, Abolfazl (Kouros) Mohammadian, and Seyedali Madanizadeh. “Effects Of Transportation And Built Environment On General Health And Obesity.” Transportation Research: Part D 14.1 (2009): 67-71. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Nov. 2013.) On the other side of the coin, people who use public transportation are only at slightly decreased risk because when an individual boards a bus they sit still, awaiting their destination while at the same time, avoiding the calories that would’ve been burned if they had walked..Additionally, automobiles aren’t the only form of transportation that is contributing to obesity. One may not see it as a huge deal, however; factors such as elevators and escalators certainly play a role too. Many buildings have incorporated luxuries such as these in their buildings for their customers and/or employees, taking the traditional way of transitioning between floors are now a thing of the past. For example, elevators in colossal building such as a headquarters for a large corporation are often preferred over taking the stairs because it not only saves time but also requires far less effort to push a button than to take 15 flights of stairs. As a result, the amount of physical activity immensely decreases especially in urban areas where large buildings are abundant. On top of that, the rapid advancement of the capabilities of cell phones, also contributes a huge toll in inactivity. The capability of cellular phones has completely changed the way humans live forever. Specifically, Apple’s creation of the iPhone transformed the cellular phone industry, leaving behind companies that also sold smartphones such as Nokia and Blackberry. The creation of the iPhone also forced smartphones before it to change their ways and function similar to Apples’. In the iPhone commercial compilation video, one can see all the remarkable features that Apple has incorporated into its cellular device. Although these features are great, they take away walking, the traditional method of completing tasks or obtaining objects. One of the iPhones features “Maps” includes the ability to create routes to a certain destination and even gives you the option of picking the “shortest distance”. Although this immensely saves time, it greatly reduces the amount of physical activity one obtains in a day because instead of burning more calories by walking or getting lost and having to walk or drive more, the iPhone does all the work for you when it creates the route. In addition, there are other apps that can be bought in Apples’ “App Store” that have also reduced the amount of physical activity performed by humans today. Specifically, companies like Netflix have not only left companies like Blockbuster behind, but it has also been made available as an app, giving people the vice of laziness to view movies straight from their phones rather than having to go to a movie theatre or a local movie rental store in order to view it.Furthermore, this video conveys the iPhone’s incorporation of the iPods ability to play both music and movies. As a result, the “iTunes Store” app has automatically been downloaded to give consumers the advantage of being able to buy and download music or movies instead of having to go to a store and buying a CD. Another factor that contributes a negative influence is the ability to surf the web. This is a negative influence as well because before, if one needed to use the Internet for any reason they would have to use a desktop computer, which wasn’t readily available everywhere a person went, as a result, they would have to go to their homes or wherever one was available. However, now the abilities of the cellular phone have advanced so much that one can surf the web whenever and wherever they are. Similarly, the main use of cellular phones in general has contributed immensely to inactivity. The luxury of making phone calls has also given people the vice of being lazy because one can communicate with another person with just a push of a button, rather than having to travel short/long distances in order to be able to communicate with that person. This inactivity immensely reduces the amount of calories one burns throughout the day, which then accumulates, leading to weight gain.Furthermore, video games and the increasing use of social media take a huge toll on physical activity as well. The time that children and adolescents spend playing video games or updating their status is increasing, meaning that they are more likely to spend their free time playing video games or exchanging messages instead of participating in outdoor activities which are now becoming a thing of the past as the use of technology becomes the main and perhaps the only activity that the youth engage in.So you can see that although the obese have to be responsible when deciding what to eat and how much, society not only creates obesity but also discriminates against them with two main factors. First, the media creates an image of how people should look like which causes depression and low self esteem in the obese while also reducing physical activity. But most importantly, low cost fattening foods are becoming more available as big corporations like McDonald’s is luring increasingly amounts of children as consumers. Also, as society becomes more filled with technology, the trade off between physical activity and technological activity will constantly grow causing the problem of obesity to trend towards a higher percentWorks Citedhttp://search.proquest.com.proxy-um.researchport.umd.edu/environmentalscience/docview/578111109/1415220A29871058176/9?accountid=14696Lambert, Thomas E., and Hokey Min. “Neighborhood Environment and Obesity in the Louisville, Kentucky Area.” International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis 3.2 (2010): 163-74. ProQuest. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.http://search.proquest.com.proxy-um.researchport.umd.edu/environmentalscience/docview/213590166/1415220A29871058176/1?accountid=14696Hill, James O., et al. “Obesity and the Environment: Where do we Go from here?” Science 299.5608 (2003): 853-5. ProQuest. Web. 24 Oct. 2013.http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=c1c8a9ad-9d36-4f20-b4f6-53ca4d3078dd%40sessionmgr13&vid=2&hid=26Tomer, John. “What Causes Obesity? And Why Has It Grown So Much?.” Challenge (05775132) 54.4 (2011): 22-49. Business Source Complete. Web. 25 Oct. 2013.http://web.ebscohost.com.proxy-um.researchport.umd.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6a6f2faf-86f6-4964-818f-468bab5a0cb7%40sessionmgr114&vid=4&hid=114PRETLOW, ROBERT A. “Addiction To Highly Pleasurable Food As A Cause Of The Childhood Obesity Epidemic: A Qualitative Internet Study.” Eating Disorders 19.4 (2011): 295-307. Academic Search Premier. Web. 25 Oct. 2013.DoBias, Matthew. “Be Healthy, Save Money? Hmm.” National Journal (2010). Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.Rashad, Inas. “Whose Fault Is It We’re Getting Fat?.” Public Policy Research 12.1 (2005): 30-36. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.”The Economics of Overweight and Obesity.” Weight in America: Obesity, Eating Disorders, and Other Health Risks. Barbara Wexler. 2010 ed. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Information Plus Reference Series. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.McCormick, B., and I. Stone. “Economic Costs Of Obesity And The Case For Government Intervention.” Obesity Reviews 8.(2007): 161-164. Academic Search Premier. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.BOOKLasagna, Louis. Obesity: Causes, Consequences, and Treatment. New York: MEDCOM Press, 1974. Print.http://library.cqpress.com.proxy-um.researchport.umd.edu/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2010100100&type=hitlist#=0#.Ul3VvyQ0168Mantel, Barbara. “Preventing Obesity.” CQ Researcher 1 Oct. 2010: 797-820. Web. 14 Oct.2013. http://library.cqpress.com.proxy-um.researchport.umd.edu/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2003013100&type=hitlist#=2#.Ul3WDyQ0168 Greenblatt, Alan. “Obesity Epidemic.” CQ Researcher 31 Jan. 2003: 73-104. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074937970400087XFrank, Lawrence D., Martin A. Andresen, and Thomas L. Schmid. “Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars.”American journal of preventive medicine 27.2 (2004): 87-96.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743583710145Serdula, Mary K., et al. “Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature.” Preventive medicine 22.2 (1993): 167-177.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2007.632/fullKlein, Samuel, et al. “Waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk: a consensus statement from shaping America’s health: Association for Weight Management and Obesity Prevention; NAASO, the Obesity Society; the American Society for Nutrition; and the American Diabetes Association.”Obesity 15.5 (2007): 1061-1067.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/oby.2005.100/fullGordon-Larsen, P., Nelson, M. C. and Beam, K. (2005), Associations among Active Transportation, Physical Activity, and Weight Status in Young Adults. Obesity Research, 13: 868–875. doi: 10.1038/oby.2005.100http://web.ebscohost.com.proxy-um.researchport.umd.edu/ehost/detail?vid=4&sid=daafd71f-8d4d-4286-b9e4-5d12e9ff8a5e%40sessionmgr15&hid=10&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&AN=35771093 Samimi, Amir, Abolfazl (Kouros) Mohammadian, and Seyedali Madanizadeh. “Effects Of Transportation And Built Environment On General Health And Obesity.” Transportation Research: Part D 14.1 (2009): 67-71. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Nov. 2013.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00342.x/fullBoyce, T. (2007), The media and obesity. Obesity Reviews, 8: 201–205. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00342.xYouTube videos:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rdhWIs76K80http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fub1MS9UguU iPone commercial:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lZMr-ZfoE4