Nowadays help the viewers to find the program

 Nowadays everything should belong to specific category or genre. The word genre comes from the French (and originally Latin) word for ‘kind’ or ‚class’. It has played an important role in the study of literature, film, television, theatre and other art forms. Historical origins might be helpful in order to understand how significant it is today. The term ‘genre’ was introduced by the ancient Greeks who first began defining artistic categories, believing he certain poetic maters were only suited to certain types of writing. The Greek philosopher Aristotle based on the various stylistic characteristic defines such forms as  „comedy” „tragedy”, the „epic” and the „ballad”. By organizing a large number of choice by separating them into smaller categories, genres help identify the artistic product the spectator might want. Books in a bookstore might be arranged in categories such as Biography, Crime, Children’s fiction or Psychological literature. In terms of television, even the names of the channels help the viewers to find the program that corresponds to their mood.  It has commonly been assumed that In the Television Industry a concept Genre is one of the most important factors in case of producing, commissioning and scheduling television productions. In the Thinking Outside the Box: A Contemporary Television Genre Reader, Edgerton and Rose argue that genre is an “essential part of the brave new world of branded entertainment.” (2005, p.250). For the thousands of competing channels to gain a guaranteed share of the overall television audience it has almost become imperative that they incorporate a specific genre into their brand identity.  According to Gross (2015), programmers must do more than just fill the time periods to create a successful lineup.There are many factors like competition, the genre of the program and the relativity of the audience to be assessed before the show is committed to the schedule. There are many methods of creating the schedule associated with the genre. Bell defines a term „tentpoling’ as putting a more popular genre between two of less popularity. Tentpoles were used by The Fox network when it expended the number of evenings in the broadcast. In their Sunday lineup, they included “The Simpsons,” “America’s Most Wanted,” and “Married . . . With Children.” which made their lineup strong. When it expanded to more nights of programming in 1990, it used these popular programs as anchors for the other nights—”The Simpsons” on Thursday, “America’s Most Wanted” on Friday, and “Married . . . With Children” on Sunday.  According to Gross Using the „Hammocking” method is probably the surest way to generate an audience for a new program is to slot it between two established shows. For example, it is often seen in children’s cartoon blocks in which a newcomer is sandwiched between two established series. The tactic of filling a time period with a program whose appeal is dissimilar to an opponent’s Bell (2015) calls counter-programming. Programmers attempt to develop an audience flow by assembling programs of similar appeal to sweep the viewer from one time period to the next, as PBS does by stacking three contiguous cooking shows on Saturday afternoons. A classic example of the stacking strategy was CBS’s 1991 Monday night schedule of four sitcoms capped by a humorous, easy-to-take hour.The lineup dominated through the year and on several occasions was victorious in every half hour.These methods are important especially for public broadcaster services because they must entertain all types of viewers.In his interesting analysis of scheduling Bell (2008) identifies characteristic of how broadcasters place shows on their agenda. Due to his study, a program is placed at this in which its core viewers are available. So for the show to have a wide appeal it needs to fulfill the needs of a specific demographic group. Every scheduler goal is to match program to audiences watching at different times of the day.For example, in the middle of the afternoon, when children come home from school children’s television usually start. Major news bulletins relatively begin the adults come home from work. For Cassey (2008), Soap operas are an example of a well-thought-out genre. Viewed by the theorist as a genre only for women they are screened during the daytime when the majority of women is working at home. For example during 1930s soap opera, then a radio serial sponsored by soap manufacturers, as a genre developed to satisfy the needs of broadcasters who wanted to win high daytime ratings, and the needs of advertisers who wanted to catch the attention of the potential clients. Bell considers between 5.30 pm and 9 pm. Programs are aimed mainly at a family audience so most common shows at that time are….. In contrast, genres targeted at adults that consists scenes of violence (like crime), or swearing and sex (like reality shows) are screened after 9 p.m. However, during the weekend programming changes entirely to adapt to the lifestyle of the audience. For instance, to accommodate kids who are waking up early, on Saturday morning dominates Children Television. The daytime lineups are filled with sporing events to reach the male viewers. (Gross,2015 pp. 49–58). Comedy, Big Entertainment, and Talk are expected to be popular – to exceed the average audience rating for the particular time slot. These genres, as Entertainment are mainly scheduled into Friday, Saturday and Sunday evenings where the rating competition is intense. (Tunstall,2015, p.281)             According to Tunstall, 2016, British Television has got two most popular TV genres – Drama and News. Together they deliver about 45 of each week’s top 100 largest UK audiences.Soap Drama is the most popular genre or sub-genre. In cost-per-hour and cost-per-audience, soap drama is fairly cheap. UK Soap is unremittingly British; it is also seen, within TV Drama, as a vital training ground – especially for writers, but also for actors and executive producers.Three other Drama sub-genres are more American influenced. Much “Quality Popular” ITV and BBC TV drama has been Crime Drama, which must compete directly with American Crime imports. Costume Drama is often based on Austen, Dickens or Tolstoy novels. More original “artistic” drama also often depends on American co-funding and audience interest. Uniquely in British TV, Drama has to compete with the full tidal wave of Hollywood’s Movie-TV-Cable-Online output, both present, and past. The switch of HBO, and another high budget American TV drama, to Sky exemplifies a broader trend. Most British Drama producers say that their budgets have been severely cut. But producers in other genres strongly assert that it is their budgets which have been and still are being cut – as part of a BBC and ITV policy of protecting Drama funding.Due to Tunstall (2016) news is the most important TV genre. No other genre is stripped across BBC and ITV four times each weekday; no other genre has anything like the BBC’s 24-hour home-and- foreign all-news offerings on TV, on Radio, and Online. Both BBC News and ITV News have bigger daily UK audiences than the largest newspaper print-and-online news services (in the Mail, Guardian, Trinity Mirror and Telegraph groups). BBC News has become the UK’s leading national news agenda-setter. National newspaper Editors must hope that their “exclusives” will be recognized as such, and picked up, by the BBC.     Sometimes channels thanks to the genres they produce have a specific identity. Discovery, MTV or History are prime examples of how to gain an effective branding that attracts viewers through concentrating on a single genre. They are focused on one genre that aims to more niche audiences looking for content that target their personal interest. However, they do not want o to be considered as a narrow-minded. Thus Cartoon Network was considered a channel with cartoons for children wanted to widen the target. In 2010, chief content officer Rob Sorcher announced, “We’re expanding beyond the boundaries of traditional kid’s content”. To redefine the assumptions that „cartoons are for children” Cartoon Network decided to broadcast content that caters to its young audience such as „The Marvelous Misadventures of Flapjack”, „The Swashbuckling Perils of the Adventures of the Men & Jeremy”or  „Harry and His Bucket Full of Dinosaurs” from 6 am to 9 pm and and after 9pm to people who Sorcher calls „animation freaks” a lineup for adults with animations such as Family Guy, Futurama, and Robot Chicken.           

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