Nitrogen streams. Plants and animals mainly use

Nitrogen finishes up in the environment normally
through agricultural activities, and then
it also finishes up in water. The nitrogen constituents in water mainly
resulted from fertilizers used in agricultural
land that mainly involve nitrate, but also ammonia, ammonium, urea, and amines. Nitrogen (N2) is one of
the most important nutrients for the plants and animals, and terrestrial
ecosystems and headwater streams. Plants and animals mainly use nitrogen to synthesize protein. It enters
the ecosystem in several chemical forms and also occurs in other dissolved forms,
such as tissues of living and dead organisms. Nitrate is one of the most
bioavailable forms of nitrogen in the water bodies of a river basin. The severe illness in infants and domestic animals
can be caused due to the presence of nitrates in the water. The most important function of ecosystems is the nitrogen
cycling and retention. The retention of nitrogen
in river systems is highly variable owing to considerable variability in
residence time and hydrological conditions that change from the upper to the
lower part of a river. If the amount of nitrogen resulted from fertilizer, and atmospheric
deposition exceeds the capacity of terrestrial systems, the excess can enter
into the water of a river, where it may have harmful effects as it comes
downstream to ecosystems. Normally, denitrification is the dominant process by
which the loss of nitrogen results from
riverine systems, and sedimentation is of only minor importance for nitrogen
retention. Denitrification occurs generally
in the top few millimeters of the
sediment surface in a river.


The different inorganic nitrogen constituents
may be formed depending on the properties
of water. In aerobic waters, it is normally
present as N2 and NO3-, and depending on
environmental conditions it may also occur as N2O, NH3,
NH4+, HNO2, NO2- or HNO3.
The nitrogen gas (N2) also can be established
in the water of coastal areas as water comes in contact with air (78% nitrogen)
in the coastal areas due to the low water depth and active tides. The overstimulation
of growth of aquatic plants and algae can
be caused due to the presence of excess nitrogen
in water. The excessive growth of the organisms may hamper the intakes of
water, take up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and also block a little bit to
deeper waters. The eutrophication of lake and reservoir may develop unsightly scums of algae on the water surface in the river, can also kill fish, and can even hamper a
lake by preventing it of oxygen. The
respiration efficiency of fish and aquatic invertebrates may be reduced and
also may lead to a loss in the diversity of
animal and plant in the river.

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