Nipah virus encephalitis can affect both humans and
animals along with the present of range of clinical features. The disease
mainly transmitted from infected pigs to humans.
Among humans, the clinical presentations can be
asymptomatic during early stage of infection, which eventually will lead to
acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis (WHO, 2017). Nipah virus infection
associated with encephalitis, which refer to as inflammation of the brain.
After an exposure, incubation period generally took about 5 to 14 days,
associated with present of illness within 3 to 14 days, initially develop influenza-like symptoms such as fever, headache,
myalgia, and sore throat followed by
drowsiness, disorientation, mental confusion, nausea and vomiting.
Patients may present with respiratory illness or some of the patients may
also present with severe neurological signs and pulmonary signs (CDC, 2014). For example, some patients infected with Nipah virus Bangladesh
strain can present with atypical pneumonia and severe respiratory problems,
including acute respiratory distress. On the other hand, seriously affected
patients can develop septicaemia, gastrointestinal bleeding, and renal
impairment. Severe features such as encephalitis and seizures can progress to
coma within 24 to 48 hours (Massimo, 2013).
Nipah virus infection in pigs
considered as contagious. The clinical manifestations
vary depending on the age groups and how the animal response to the virus.
Generally, rate of mortality was low except in young piglets whereas rate of
morbidity is high in all age groups. Nipah Virus infection in pigs can affect
the respiratory and nervous systems. Swine may begin with clinical signs of
acute fever associate with respiratory system infection such as sign of nasal discharge,
severe cough and breathing difficulty and loud non-productive cough. Loud
non-productive cough was known as porcine respiratory and neurologic syndrome,
porcine respiratory and encephalitic syndrome, and barking pig syndrome. Neurological
signs associated with twitching, trembling, muscle fasciculation, spasms,
muscle weakness, limb weakness, convulsions, and death (OIE, nd) (Massimo, G.,