Nazi Hypothermia Experiments
In 1941, the German military conducted an estimated 400 experiments
on 300 victims, in an attempt of finding a cure to treat hypothermia. The
disease research also involved the results from the Dachau freezing experiments.
The Nazi Hypothermia experiments have been regarded as extremely controversial
as many disagreed with the methods used to obtained this data. The victims the
suffered through the trials, especially those that have been tested on more
than once, should not be belittles. In view of their suffering, some have even
gone to the extent of rejecting the Nazi research.
Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
These experiments are known to be
one of the most cruel ones ever conducted and considered as one of the darkest
chapters in the history of medicine as American doctors deliberately infected
prisoners, patients and soldiers with the painful virus of syphilis and
gonorrhea. What made it worse was that 696 individuals had not even given their
consent to participating in the research or agreeing to be test subjects.
deliberately infected prisoners, patients and soldiers with syphilis and
The incident received so
much criticism and backlash, leading to the establishment of the National
Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral
Research and the National Research Act.
the stone age when animals were sources of entertainment and food during
hunting, human’s view on animals have changed drastically. Today, the rights of
animals are highly regarded and many feel strongly against the abuse of animals
rights. Animal rights abuse usually happen in the form of animal testing, where
species like monkeys, rabbits and rodents are experimented on, to test the
safety and effectiveness of new products. Because these products have obviously
yet to be perfected (and thus require testing), the test animals often have to
suffer side effects or negative reaction to the products used on them, bringing
to them pain. As more people are starting to stand up for animal rights and
stop the abuse of animals, these experimenters have acknowledged the ethical
problems of animal testing. However, research must still see progress thus many
have come to a middle ground, understanding that harming a few animals is
acceptable for the benefits to humanity. Scientists have also come to a consensus
that the experiments should be as humane as possible. Additionally, a set of
principles known as the three “R’s – reduction, refinement and
replacement, have been implemented strictly to see that the harm caused to
animals are kept at a minimum. The three “R”s refer to the guidelines
of reducing the number of animals used for testing, refining the test procedures
to reduce suffering and replacing animals with other mediums that can be used
as alternatives for testing.