Name: making swift. The reduction of management

Name: Malashree Hanumnathappa Makari

Management in Marketing

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Over the years, large business organizations
have steadily reduced the number of layers in the organization structure. What
purposes has this profound change in structure served?


Ans(Refd. Notes): Business
organizations have steadily reduced the number of layers in the organization
structure to make the systems more democratic and decision making swift. The
reduction of management structures has made the organizations competitive and
more successful as it leads to decrease in cost.

Within an organization,
change can take place at the individual and small group levels as well as at
the organization level. A suggested model to explain organizational change
lists three stages or process that occur:

1.    Unfreezing attitudes

2.    Attitude change

3.    Refreezing to point out
the success of the change

People are usually most resistant to change due to fear of an
unfavorable outcome.  Some techniques to
gain support for change are:

1.    Allow for negotiation

2.    Allow for participation

3.    Point out financial

4.    Establish a sense of

5.    Use a visual people can
relate to

6.    Allow for first-hand
observation of successful change

7.    Get the best people
behind the program

Six Sigma is an important, data-driven strategy for organizational
change.  This strategy achieves
near-perfect quality administered by Six Sigma team with the cooperation of a
company’s managers and leaders.

An extreme example of
reduction in an organizational structure in structure can be Eastern Kodak Company,
which shrunk from 140,000 employees in the 1950s to about 20,000 in 2008.

If you were the CEO of a large organization,
would you want to share responsibility with a co-CEO? Why or why not?

Ans:  If I was the CEO of a large organization it wouldn’t have been a
problem sharing the responsibilities because this is how we could build the
relationship with co-CEO and it is important for CEO and co-CEO to have the
same mission and goals to run an organization. Working in team to achieve the
same goal is better than working alone. Ideas are exchanged, the upcoming
circumstances can be discussed etc.

For example: Larry Ellison stepped down as CEO of Oracle,
the company he co-founded in 1977. In replacement, Oracle presidents Mark Hurd
and Safra Catz shared the CEO role. Ellison remained chairman of the board and
served as chief technology officer.



 What can
first-level and middle-level managers and team leaders to about shaping the
culture of a firm?


Ans: The first-level and middle-level managers and
team leaders must motivate and assign employees specific challenging goals for shaping
the culture of a firm. They have to make sure that the employees accept the
organizational goals.

People will be motivated to the extent that they
accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their
progress toward goal achievement.

Equity theory says People will be motivated at
work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly.


Example: Quarterly
appraisal and rewards for the best work should be awarded from first-level and
middle-level managers.


What can you tell about the organizational
culture of a large retailer just by visiting a couple of the firm’s stores?


Ans: Just by visiting couple of firm stores of a
large retailer, organizational culture cannot be decided or to be concluded. However,
they make their stores united and similar in every manner. Products are sold
similarly in couple of firm stores and provide the better selection of product.


How can a manager tell
whether an employee is resisting change?


Ans: There
are several factors which says that an employee is resisting change and below
are few of them:

Low productivity


Lack of morale and motivation

Increased absenteeism

Breakdowns in constructive communication

Unexplained physical illnesses 





Describe how a business
person could be an effective manager yet an ineffective leader.

Ans: Leaders builds confidence,
innovates ideas and develops the work environment. In the other hand managers
focus on administration and maintenance of the project or a specific task to be
achieved. In comparison with this, a business man has to have the effective
management skills and effective leadership. In some case business person could
fail in either of these qualities. It is not wrong to give the statement to a
person as an effective manager but an ineffective leader.

Eg: A famous business person
Mr. Mukesh Ambani, MD of Indian Telecom company leading in India and been
extremely successful and innovating changes to his country, yet he is an
ineffective leader.



How would a leader know whether a given
subordinate, or group of subordinates, is trustworthy enough to be empowered?


Leaders should firstly build trust between the subordinates by not letting them
down when they are in need to the fullest. Everybody says, “am trustworthy” and
leader cannot decide on this. A leader should monitor and has to build a
connection with the subordinates and have to make employees feel safe, provide
them a workplace environment to thrive and resources to be successful.

Suppose that you as a manager found out that
Jennifer, one of your team members, has a strong intrinsic motivation. What
would you do with this information to motivate Jennifer to higher levels of


Ans: If I was a
manager and found out that Jennifer had a strong intrinsic motivation then I
would encourage to higher levels of performance by setting up by building the
managerial method:

opportunity to cross-train the skills

up goals to achieve every part of quarter

Performance feedback and rewards.

to increase performance

up the competitive motivation

the access to learning with her choice of interest


Some managers object to systematic approaches to
motivating employees by expressing the thought, “Why should we go out of our
way to motivate workers to do what they are paid to do?”  What is your
reaction to this objection?


Ans: Motivation
is required in every level of the organization. Everybody is paid to the
work they do. Motivation is an extra energy to work, managers does not have to
spend the money from their pocket. Motivation is one of the key to success and
Managers should go out their work to do so. This is the best example of Manager
being good at management and inefficient leader. It is responsibility of a
Manager to identify the strength of each employee and bring to the notice and
give a positive feedback and advantage of what could be done using the strength
at work. Money can motivate but appreciation for all the successful work will
bring the work place stronger.


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