MOTIVATION due to the weight loss, and subsequent


This annotated references list describes and gives information on the subject of the effects of eating disorder, with mainly focused on the effects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Usually eating disorder related to the obsession on having the “perfect” body weight and shape, where in order to gain it many people especially women do it in an unhealthy way such as constant diet, excessive exercise, refusal to eat, or even self-induced vomiting. This unhealthy way of losing weight often leads the person to an obsession with their weight and also signal an eating disorder behavior like anorexia and bulimia. Eating disorder behavior have lots of effects, it often makes someone in distress and never-ending anxiety of their weight to their body shape, furthermore, eating disorder could also lead to some health problem such as dehydration, muscle loss, abnormal heart rate, and many more. The reason why I chose this topic is that my own experience on eating disorder behavior, growing up with so not ideal body shape and weight also the mean things that people said to me had put me in a really hard situation especially all the effects that I experienced. That’s why in this annotated references list, I focused on discussing the effects of eating disorder where anorexia and bulimia will be the main cause and concludes it with giving some suggestion about how to treat eating disorder.

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                  Mehler, P.S., & Brown, C. (2015, March 31). Anorexia nervosa – health                                         complications. Journal of Eating Disorder. Retrieved from                                                  


Mehler and Brown’s study focuses on the impact of anorexia nervosa to health problem due to the continuation of malnutrition, where some of the impacts could be permanent even after receiving some treatment. In general, the explicit health problems that are caused by anorexia nervosa are weight loss and malnutrition. It happens because as the weight of someone’s body rapidly decreased it will affect most of the body systems. While in this study it explains further about the health problems that are caused by anorexia nervosa; When someone starts to starve themselves, the starvation results in the destructive metabolism of protein and fat that trigger complications on the skin, heart, brain, liver, intestines, kidneys, and muscles which makes the person with anorexia nervosa to have some problems in dermatological, gastrointestinal, endocrine, hematologic, neurologic, bone metabolism, cardiac, and pulmonary systems. For example, a dermatological problem, due to the weight loss, and subsequent subcutaneous tissue loss; the person with anorexia nervosa really easily get bruises.

This journal explains all the health problems that are caused by anorexia nervosa in a very detail way. Even though the journal uses some medical words that might be really hard to understand for a non-medical person, it explains all the health problems really clearly and mentions all the causes of the health problems that lead us to an image of how the anorexia nervosa could cause health complications in many sectors. In the conclusion the study concludes that the health complications start to strike when the person with anorexia nervosa starts to drastically lose their weight, and as the suggestion to prevent the health complications is by gaining back the weight that lose. Overall this study describes and explains the effect of anorexia nervosa to health in order to persuade people to realize the risk of anorexia that could be dangerous for our health permanently. In the future, I will use this journal’s statements to support my essay that mainly focuses on the effects of anorexia. The statements are

“Multiple studies of patients with anorexia nervosa have revealed findings of decreased       left ventricular mass, left ventricular index, cardiac output, and left ventricular diastolic     and systolic dimensions.”

 “Patients with anorexia nervosa very commonly have impaired bone structure and reduced bone strength ”

With this statements, I could use it to support my essay on the effects of anorexia nervosa, where it explains the health complications in cardiac system and bone metabolism on someone with anorexia nervosa.



Pawaskar, M., Witt, E.A., Supina, D., Herman, B.K., & Wadden, T.A. (2017,                                 July 25). Impact of binge eating disorder on functional impairment and work                 productivity in an adult community sample in the united states. International                        Journal of Clinical Practice. Retrieved from

            re/10.1111/ijcp.12970/asset/ijcp12970.pdf?v=1&t=jbatvtm3&s=3e584cd3ad4                      d3c0272fbde268c242eee8213f691


This journal focuses on looking for the relation between eating disorder and someone’s abilities to work in the U.S. Based on the surveys that WHO did, it found that a person with eating disorder intends have increased at their absence at work and followed by a drop in their work productivity. As a result, this study did a survey using a sample of US adults from The National Health and Wellness Survey in order to collect the accurate information about the connection between someone eating behavior and their daily productivity at work. At the very first the respondents were divided into binge eating disorder respondents and non-binge eating disorder respondents; where over 22.397 respondents, 344 were categorized as binge eating disorder respondents and 20.437 was a non-binge eating disorder respondents. Based on the survey that the studies did, it found that among employed respondents, the binge eating disorder respondents have a higher rate of absence, often to come to work in unhealthy condition or didn’t come to work because unhealthy condition and the decreased of their work productivity compared to the non-binge eating disorder respondents. Binge eating disorder respondent’s productivity and contribution are not only decreased in their work field but also in their school life, social life, leisure activities, and family; where their rates are greater than non-binge eating disorder’s rates.  To sum up, the study states that the binge eating disorder respondents show higher decreased in their functioning, productivity, and activities than non-binge eating disorder respondents.

Even though this study only used samples of adults in the United States, it has plus points because it analyzed the relation of eating disorder with the functional impairment in work in the U.S with the accurate data, calculate all the answer and illustrated it in diagram form so the reader could understand more. In conclusion of the studies, it stated that adults with binge eating disorder have a shrink in their functioning, work productivity, and daily activities than adults who don’t have binge eating disorder and gave suggestion to the adults who have eating disorder to treat their problem before it gets worse. In the future, I would likely to use some data from this journal, such as

“BED respondents were more impaired than non-BED respondents on the work/school (4.24 3.33-5.40), social life/ leisure activities (6.37 4.97-8.15) and family life/home responsibilities (5.76 4.51-7.34)”

“BED respondents reported significantly (all P<.001) higher percentages (mean±SD) of absenteeism (9.59%±19.97% vs 2.90%±12.95%), presenteeism (30.00%±31.64% vs 10.86%±20.07%), work productivity loss (33.19%±33.85% vs 12.60%±23.22%) and activity impairment (43.52%±34.36% vs 19.94%±27.22%) than non?BED respondents." Where in the future I can use this data as an evidence to support my opinion, when I am going to write an essay or having debates on the relation of eating disorder and someone productivity in the United States.       SOURCE #3   Drabkin, A., Rothman, M.S., Wassenaar, E., Mascolo, M., & Mehler, P.S. (2017,                           December 4). Assessment and clinical management of bone disease in adults                         with eating disorder: a review. Journal of Eating Disorder. Retrieved from                                              0?   This journal mainly focused on treating bone disease in adults with eating disorder. Usually the effects of anorexia nervosa are extreme weight loss and the change of physical appearance, however this study found out that there's another common complication in adults with eating disorder which is low bone mineral density that leads to lifelong effects such as osteoporosis and fragile bone. The study concluded that the way to treat low bone mineral density in adults with eating disorder is by gain back weight and in order to prevent fragility fracture that could ended up as a permanent disability, it suggested that adults with low bone mineral density to do some therapy and avoid any kind of weight bearing exercises.  This journal is a recent journal that use many references to support their studies, though this study not really easy to understand because there are many difficult words it makes the reader get a general understanding about the effects of anorexia nervosa on bone disease, it also provides the reader with suggestion and recommendation on how to handle bone disease on adults with eating disorder. In the future I would like to quote some parts of this journal such as, "Fragility fractures in the malnourished patients with AN can provide detrimental to young individuals and can lead to permanent disability" Which could I use as a supporting idea when I write an essay about a long-term effects of anorexia nervosa "Similar to the long-term effects of malnutrition on bone, AN may also cause longstanding muscular impairment" With this idea I could say the other effects that caused by anorexia nervosa, and do a further research on the relation of anorexia nervosa and longstanding muscular impairment. SOURCE #4                          Anderson, L., Shaw, J.M., & McCargar, L. (1997, July). Physiological effects                             of bulimia nervosa on the gastrointestinal tract. Canadian Journal of                   Gastroenterology. Retrieved from                              s/cjgh/1997/727645/abs/               This journal focuses in the physiological effects of bulimia nervosa on human's digestive tract. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder where after consume an amount of food the person with bulimia nervosa become emotional; where it leads them into emotional experiences such as disgust, stress, and guilt. In order to prevent any weight gain, the person with bulimia nervosa purge themselves, do excessive exercise, and long-term fasting. Therefore, those kind of actions could lead to physical damages. Particularly purging, it could effect to their digestive tract from oral cavity (hypogeusia, hyperamylasemia, hypertrophy), dentition (enamel erosion, dental caries, dentin hypersensitivity), oropharynx (dysphagia/odynophagia, swallowing abnormalities), esophagus (esophagitis/lesions), stomach (increased capacity/distension), pancreas (enlarged pancreas/ acute pancreatitis), and small intestine (diarrhea/steatorrhea). In the conclusion, the writer concluded that there are lots of physiological effects on the digestive tract because of bulimia nervosa. For example, due to the purging behavior it insults the digestive tract and could be cause a permanent damage. The person with bulimia nervosa could suffer from serious medical complications that could become fatal. Moreover, a further research on the relation of bulimia nervosa and digestive disorders is needed.                This journal is one of the toughest journal that I'd read, not only using so many medical explanations it also uses so many medical words that unfamiliar for a non-medical person. On the other hand, even though this journal is not recent, it still trustable because it uses so many references to support their studies. It gave me a lot of new information about the damage in our digestive tract because of bulimia nervosa behavior such as gastric abnormalities. Furthermore, I would recommend to use this journal's information as a supporting evidence for essay and debates. I would also do a further research on this journal, the part that I want to research more is:                "The discovery of these symptoms, along with finger calluses (Russel's sign) caused by self-induced vomiting, should alert the health care professional to the possibility of bulimia nervosa"                Where I want to do a further research on the finger calluses (Russel's sign) and why it is caused by self-induced vomiting. Which would allow me to get a greater information on bulimia nervosa and it effects.


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