Mitosis stages are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and

Mitosis & Cancer ResearchBy: Maeve Flaherty1/12/18BLOCK 4Mitosis is the process in which the cells in your body, and their nuclei divide. There are four stages that occur in mitosis. Cancer is when some of your cells start to divide constantly and don’t stop. Those rapidly increasing cells start to spread into surrounding tissue. Cancer occurs when mitosis happens uncontrollably.  Mitosis has four stages and cytokinesis. The stages are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase is another thing that happens to a cell. Interphase is a small “break” in between the cell stages. During interphase, the cell is active, producing proteins, replicating DNA, and dividing centrioles. During the first stage (prophase), the nucleolus fades away, and the nuclear envelope disintegrates. Each of the replicated chromosomes consist of two chromatids, both with the same genetic information. These chromatids are called sister chromatids. The cytoskeleton disassembles, then the spindles form.  Then the spindles connect to a sister chromatid or another spindle fiber. The next stage is metaphase. During metaphase the spindle fibers come together and then the chromosomes align in the middle of the cell. During the last stage (anaphase) the spindle fibers shorten and then, disconnect. The sister chromatids move apart and then begin moving to the opposite poles of the cell. The last stage is telophase. During telophase, the daughter chromosomes reach the opposite poles. The spindle fibres that pulled the sister chromosomes apart disappear, and  the nuclear envelope reforms.Then, there is cytokinesis. Cytokinesis is the division of cytoplasm. In cytokinesis, the spindle fibers that were not attached to the chromosomes start breaking down. They keep breaking down until a small part of them are left. A contractile ring then splits the cell into two daughter cells and then microtubules in the new cells reorganize to make a new cytoskeleton so the cell can return to interphase. In plant cells cleavage can only happen in lower plants, while higher plants can have cell plate cytokinesis. Animal cells occur through cleavage. In the plant cell the middle part of the spindle holds on while a phragmoplast is formed. There is no mid body in a plant cell. In an animal cell the spindle disappears slowly, and a mid body forms. In an animal cell vesicles and a cell plate do not form, while in a plant cell, the vesicles and cell plate do form. Microfilaments play a very small role in plant cell cytokinesis, while in an animal cell they are very active. In a plant cell wall formation occurs, and there is no wall formation in an animal cell.If the nuclear envelope didn’t dissolve, then the chromosomes wouldn’t be able to travel to the opposite poles of the cells. Since the nuclear envelope needs to dissolve so the chromosomes can travel and do their part. If the sister chromatids didn’t separate during anaphase then one cell would have an extra chromosome and the other cell would be missing a chromosome. Many things like these two examples could happen to a cell.Melanoma is a disease in which cancer cells form in your melanocytes, which are the cells that color your skin. This type of cancer happens when your skin is exposed to natural light, or artificial light, have unusually large moles, have had blistering sunburns, or have a history of melanoma in your family.  This skin cancer can happen on any part of your body. Many people with fair skin, green or blue eyes, and red or blonde hair, have a higher chance in getting melanoma.This cancer can be treated. If you have melanoma and you are in the early stages still, it will be easier to treat your cancer. The longer you wait to have your cancer treated the harder it will be for the cancer to go away. The top five ways doctors, get rid of melanoma are: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Immunotherapy, and Targeted therapy.    If you were to get surgery you would have to get the tumor removed by cutting it off. People have the choice of taking a piece of skin from another part of their body to cover up the cut. People can get chemotherapy. When doing chemotherapy you would have drugs injected into your body to get rid of the cancer. This may cause you to lose your hair, and have other side effects, such as a metallic taste in your mouth, or nauseousness. Radiation therapy is when doctors use high-energy x-rays to get rid of the cancer. Immunotherapy is when doctors use substances to boost the immune system so it can fight against the cancer. Last but not least targeted therapy is when doctors use drugs or other substances to attack the cancer cells. Doctors usually inject the drugs near or on the cancer cells. Targeted therapy usually causes less harm to your normal cells. All of these options are good ways to get rid of this type of cancer.    The purpose of mitosis is to replace and reproduce cells. I learned about five different procedures that doctors can choose from to get rid of melanoma. I also learned how you can get melanoma and that certain traits people may have could increase their chance of getting melanoma. I also learned about the different stages of mitosis and how they work. I learned about what would happen to the cell if the sister chromatids didn’t separate during anaphase. Another thing I learned about was what would happen if the nuclear envelope didn’t dissolve. I have learned many things about mitosis and melanoma. Haneef, Deena T Kochunni Jazir. “Major Differences.” Difference between Cytokinesis in Plant and Animal Cells,”Skin Cancer.” National Cancer Institute, Gillaspy, Rebecca. “What Is Mitosis? – Definition, Stages & Function.”,,”What Is Cancer?” National Cancer Institute, Generate APA Book Citations for Your Bibliography,”The Free Automatic Bibliography Composer.” EasyBib, Chegg,, BookRags,–,,”Animal Cell Mitosis .” CELLS Alive!,         I used EasyBib for my citations above