Memory is retained about the past for later

Memory  is  a  cognitive  process  by  which  information  is  retained  about  the  past  for  later  use. For  anything  to  be  remembered  in  the  first  place, the  information  needs  to  go  through  three  stages  of  memory:  encoding,  storage  and  retrieval (Eysenck, 2015).  Atkinson  and  Shiffrin’s multi-store  working  model  shows  us  how  the  information  flows  through  the  memory  system  in  a  linear  way.  There are  three  different  types  of  memory stores  and  they  are  sensory  memory(SM),  short-term  memory (STM)  and  long-term  memory  (LTM). (Atkinson  &  Shiffrin, 1968  cited  in  McLeod, 2009).Sensory  memory  receives  and  stores  the  information  from  the  environment  and  through  our  senses  very  briefly.  All  of  the  information  which  we receive  through  our  sight  is  known  as  “iconic”  and  the  information  which  we  receive  through  our  hearing  is  known as  “echoic”.  Only  the  relevant  information  is  then  passed  onto  the  short-term  memory(STM). As  the  information  disappears  quickly  through  sensory  memory,  so  in  psychology  most  studies  are  focused  mainly  on  STM  and  LTM. According  to  the  study  done  by  Baddeley,  STM  encodes  acoustically(echoic). Miller(1956)  reviewed  research  into  the  capacity  of  STM  and  found  out  that  the  capacity  of  STM  is  7+/- 2  items. However,  he  also  suggested  that  our  capacity  is  improved  through  chunking.  Peterson  and  Peterson(1959)  studied  on  the  duration  of  STM  and  found out  that  it  lasts  approximately  for  18  seconds.  Furthermore,  to  maintain  the  duration  of  items  in  the  STM  it  must  be rehearsed. Long-term  memory  holds  information  which  is  encoded  semantically  and  it  holds  it  for  a  long  period  of  time  and  possibly  forever. Previous  study  done  by  Paivio  and  Csapo (1969)  on  imagery  and  memory  has  stated  that  images  are  better  recalled  compared  to  words  through  his  dual  coding  theory  which  shows  that  visual  images  and  words  are  processed  separately. Therefore  according  to  his  theory, images  have  an  advantage  over  words  stimuli  as  they  are  dually  encoded  by  generating  both  verbal  and  image  code,  whereas  word  stimuli  only  generates  a  verbal code. All  of  the  results  from  his  experiments  shows  us  superiority  of  images  over  words.Srivastava  and  Purohit(1979)  who  did  an  experiment  on  48  Indian  university  students  has  also  shown  that  images  were  better  recalled  compared  to  words  in  short-term  retention. During  the  experiment, they  produced  some  auditory  distraction  to  the  participants  and  during  the  recall,  they  found  poorer  recall  both  types  of  stimulus. However,  they  also  found  out  that  more  decay  effect  was  noticed  for  words  than  for  images. The  results  were  then  interpreted  in  terms  of  dual  coding  model.  This  also  provides  an evidence  for  the  existence  of  separate  visual  and  acoustic  storage  systems.Furthermore,  study  done  by  Rusted  and  Coltheart (1979)  tested  a  group  of 9-10 year olds. On their  experiment, children  were  required  to  read  various  descriptive  passages  which  were  presented  with  and  without  images. In  both  immediate  and  delayed  recall,  children  were  able  to  remember  those  passages  more  with  the  images  on. The  presence  of  images  increased  the  recall  of  both  pictorial  and  non  pictorial  features  from  the  passages. Conventional  wisdom  amongst  many  memory  theorists  also  holds  that  images  are  better  remembered  than  words  on  recognition tests (e.g., Ally & Budson, 2007; Anderson, 2009; Brady, Konkle, Alvarez, & Oliva, 2008; Mintzer & Snodgrass, 1999; Nelson, Reed, & Walling, 1976; Shepard, 1967; Schacter, Israel, & Racine, 1999; Standing, 1973)Aim:The  aim  of  this  research  is  to  investigate  the  effect  of  images  with  words  versus  words  alone  on  memory  recall.Experimental Hypothesis: People  will  recall  images  with  words  more  significantly  than  words  alone  after  a  brief  period  of  time. This  is  a  one  tailed  hypothesis  as  it  predicts  that  people  will  recall  images  with  words  more  than  just  words  alone.Null hypothesis: There  will  be  no  significant  difference  and  any  difference  is  due  to  chance.Justification  for  hypothesis:  Based  on  several  previous  researches  that  experimented  on  the  effectiveness  of  image  with  words  vs  words  alone  on  memory  recallMethod: Design: This  will  be  an  independent  measure  design  as  there  will  be  2  separate  groups  of  20  different  participants  in  each  group. The  experiment  will  be  conducted  in  a  laboratory  so  that  we  can  control  all  aspects  i.e. noise, temperature of the room  etc  that  might  affect  the  results  and  performance  of  the  participants. Independent  variable  influences  change  in  the  dependent  variable  which  will  be  the  use  of  either  images  with  words  or  words   alone. Dependent  variable  which  depends  on  the  independent  variable  will  be  the  list  of  words  recalled (memory  performance).Participants:For  my  experiment, there  will  be  40  participants  who  will  be  separated  in  two  groups – Group A  &  Group B  (20  participants  in  each  group). Group  A   will  be  given  the  list  of  words  only  and  Group  B  will  be  given  images  with  words  to  recall. A  random  sample  from  college  will  be  selected  for  this  experiment  which  will  include  both  male  and  female  within  an  age  range  of  18-30.Materials: Materials  that  I  will  be  needing  for  this  experiment  is  a  computer  and  projector  to  show  the  powerpoint  slides, powerpoint  slides  with  images  and  words, pens  and  paper  to  recall  the  words, stopwatch  for  timer, informed  consent  form  for  participants  (see  appendix  II), debriefing  to  provide  at  the  end(see  appendix  III)  and  instruction  sheet  for  the  participants.  I  did  pilot  study  to  check  that  my  materials  and  procedures  worked  smoothly  and  after  piloting  I  have  decided  to  use  10  words  in  total  with  3  sec  intervals  between  each  slide  and  1  minute  for  for  the  participants  to  recall. I  have  chosen  non  distinctive  words  and  made  sure  words  were  not  related  to  each  other (see appendix I for word list).Procedure:Each  participants  will  be  given  a   copy  of  consent  form  before  entering  the  room. As  I  will  be  using  the  laboratory  for  this  experiment, the  environment  and  all  other  factors  will  be  controlled. Experiment  will  be  conducted  in  the  morning  and  participants  will  be  given  5-10  minutes  to  relax  and  sign  the  consent  form  before  starting. Once  the  consent  form  has  been  signed,  they  will  be  randomly  selected  into  2  groups (20  participants  in  each  group). Health  &  Safety  will  be  mentioned  prior  to  the  experiment. Participants  will  be  asked  to  take  a  seat  and  both  verbal  and  written  instructions  will  be  given. All  needed  materials  would  already  be  available  on  the  table.  Depending  on  the  group,  participants  will  be  asked  to  either  look  at   the  slideshow  with  words  or  images  with  words  on  the  powerpoint  screen. Slides  will  be  played  in  3  sec  interval  and  participants  will  then  be  given  a  minute  to  recall  onto  the  sheet  provided. Once  the  experiment  is  completed,  debrief  will  be  mentioned.Ethical issue: By complying  with  BPS guidelines, I  will  make  sure  that  all  participants  must  be  at  least  of  age  18  to  take  part  in  the  experiment. I  will  repeat  the  informed  consent  form  to  make  sure  deception  is  avoided. They  will  be  reminded  that  they  have  the  right  to  withdraw  at  any  time. Their  identification  will  be  kept  strictly  confidential. Room  will  be  checked  prior  to  the  experiment  for  health  &  safety. Before  starting  the  experiment,  I  will  make  sure   to  check  their  medical  history  to  see  if  anyone  has  any  serious  illness. I  will  also  make  sure  participants  will  experience  no  psychological  harms. Lastly, making  sure  participants  are  fully  debriefed  at  the  end  of  the  experiment.Reliability and validity: Many  experiments  have  been  repeated  in  the  past  with  similar  results  which  makes  it  reliable. To  make  this  experiment  valid, we are going to control  all  the  factors  by  assessing  both  internal  and  external  validity  to  make  sure  the  experiment  is  testing  on  what  it  is  suppose  to.Handling results:Descriptive statistics: There  are  two  key  methods  of  dispersion:  range  and  standard  deviation. Range  tells  us  the  difference  between  the  highest  and  the  lowest  value  and  is  affected  by  anomalies. It  does  not indicate  how  scores  relate  to  the  mean. I  will  therefore  be  using  standard  deviation  as  a  measure  of  dispersion  because  it  measures  how  much  scores  deviates  from  the  mean  and  it  is  more  sensitive  than  a  range. Like range,  a  higher  standard  deviation  shows  more  variability  in  a  set  of  data.Inferential statistics:I  will  be  using  Mann-Whitney  U  test  to  test  the  difference  with  my  independent  groups  design. Null  hypothesis  can  then  be  proven  or  rejected  by  doing  calculation  for  Mann-Whitney U. All  the  results  will  be  collected  after  the  experiment  and  data  will  be  interpreted  onto  a  table  first  and  then  to  a  graph. I  will  be  using  line  chart  graph  where  x-axis  will  represent  participants  with  image + words  and  words  alone, y-axis  will  represent  the  number  of  words  recalled. Once  all  the  results  are  interpreted  onto  the  graph,  we  can  also  analyze  for  possible  primacy  and  recency  effect.