Measuring their memory in a given area. Based

Measuring training outcomes through training evaluation is done when learning objectives are attempted to be met. The purpose of training evaluation is to analyze if objectives were achieved and if this achievement may have an effect on employee performance and productivity. In present, there is the lack of clarity in the changes brought about by the knowledge acquisition of employees from training and the ability of the company to make use of the most appropriate method of assessment of learning given the level of changes. This research intends to propose a conceptual paradigm to measure learning outcomes that may serve helpful to coming up with the proper training evaluation models in firms.    Most firms have continued to believe that learning solely relies on the change of verbal and physical behavior of its employees. According to (Bloom, Gagne, Krathwohl, & Masia, 1964), it is important to take into account the cognitive, affective and skill-based aspects in learning outcomes. They have also proposed the issues and methods for training associated under each domain.The first aspect, Cognition, is defined as the amount of knowledge an individual has in a certain field, how this is gained and applied. Some of the tools used to assess training development in this domain are achievement tests in which pre-determined questions are given on the work concepts and processes to test their memory in a given area. Based on Gagne’s proposition, the researchers have derived three categories that constitute cognitive outcomes which are mainly verbal knowledge, knowledge organization and cognitive strategies. Verbal knowledge can be distinguished as various forms such as declarative knowledge in which it focuses more on the what of a concept, procedural knowledge delving on the how and strategic knowledge that looks into which, when and why. Verbal knowledge may serve inadequate in developing employees’ high level skills, although employees who are gradually competent in this sense are known to quickly respond and perform given tasks well. As an employee’s mental capacity improves over time, they would eventually focus more on the procedures required in their work. The term mental model describes the process in which an employee develops an organization in knowledge containing value that outweighs the amount of information obtained. (Johnson-Laird,1983; Rouse & Morris, 1986). A few of the advantages one may gain from the mental model is the ability to solve problems and integrate ideas. From the study conducted by (Goldsmith and Johnson, 1990), we could extract a good application of the mental model in the evaluation of employee training. The measure included exercising employees’ memory through the identification of the relationship between concepts in a similar area.The last subtopic created from Gagne’s ideology is the Cognitive strategies which involves the application of the knowledge acquired from training to the internalization of greater roles and responsibilities. It is also concerned with carrying out metacognitive skills and the pacing on how well they do so. Cognitive strategies deal with an employee’s ability to do more than what is expected of them. An effective method to make use of such as from Gott and her associates, is to require the employees’ to define their tasks, how they would assess each step to accomplish them and what they would do in an if the situation were to be different. Another protocol proven to be applicable in this subdomain is the implementation of employees’ self assessment in which they are asked to state how much they have learned from training, as well as their weaknesses. This measurement can serve as a basis for the firm to estimate the remaining time period needed for their training.The second category which is the Skill-Based Learning Outcomes focuses more on how trainees improve their technical and physical skills with the initiative to accomplish their desired objectives. According to (Weiss, 1990), the behavior of the trainees is one of the factors that help develop these two mentioned skills of theirs in a more systematic way. An examination through observation of the trainees, either in role play or whilst their actual job, serve as the basis to know if their skills really develop. There are 3 stages of the theories of skill development, Initial Skill Acquisition, Skill Compilation, Skill Automaticity, Training programs are most likely able to use the Skill Compilation and Skill Automaticity rather than the Initial Skill Acquisition since these two show the higher development skills aspired. Compilation is when trainees’ practices are executed consecutively without having to commit a mistake. Their performance shows their mastery and use of skills they have developed. In this stage, distinguishing which correct skill to used in different circumstances are more advance. As for its measurement implications, it would be of big help to be able to supervise the trainees’ skill development in order to know their strengths and what skills they will have to improve on. Automaticity is the stage wherein trainees’ perform in an equally fast manner with a successful outcome. With this, performances of the trainees are accomplished individually and have a smooth flow showing that they are sure of what they are doing. Cognitive psychologists find automaticity meaningless which made them have second thoughts about it yet three strategies remained. The first strategy was to make an individual trainee multi-task. The second strategy was to make two or more individuals answer one primary and one complex problem. And the last strategy, is not to compute for the automaticity but show concern to the data that will be collected and data that was already collected in training.Gagne (1984) proposed that attitude and motivation is a factor that contributes to a person’s behavior, therefore concluding that it is another learning outcome.  In the training field, people, for example Kirkapatrick, disagreed to the idea about affectively based measures as indicators of learning and training researchers, instead, they have gathered reaction measures. Reaction measures show the results as to how the trainees feel after the training, their opinion about its organization and if they think it helped them develop their skills effectively. Affectively based measures of training evaluation was considered as a class of variable of what causes attitude, motivation and goals that are contribute to the training program’s goals. In relation to this, Bloom, together with his associates, thought that these class of variables are indicators, not merely just precursors, to learning. They said that learning has already occurred only if the trainees’ values have undergone change. This learning outcome focuses on all learning outcomes, excluding the cognitive or skill based.             Attitudinal Outcomes are achieved through training programs that focuses on training of establishing affective changes. The objectives of the training program in this area mostly revolve around inner growth, self awareness and changing values.              Measurement Implications are measured by the attitude of feelings toward the attitude object and how strong the reaction to it is. The first focus of measurement should show the consistency of the direction of attraction with the learning objective and as for the second, mainly concerned how one person can contain attitude. There are many different thought on attitude strength, accessibility, attitude centrality, internalization are a few examples to name.      Measures of attitude strength are useful for the indication of learning during training. Showing the change from conformity and passivity to active participation is a sign that learning has occurred during the pre and post training. Those who are more passionate about their training are more likely to have better results.Motivational Outcomes in training focuses on the change of trainees’ behavior depending on the rewards which make them have the desire to accomplish the task. This outcome is a type of affective outcome in training and examples of these are: motivational dispositions, self-efficacy, and goal setting which lead toward the same objective although using different approaches.Motivational disposition is recognized in two categories: mastery orientation and performance orientation which are seen as general motivational tendencies that are adaptable in certain situations. According to (Dweck, 1986; Dweck and Elliott, 1983), mastery orientation is boosting one’s competence as regards to the task given and people establishing goals to develop the qualities needed. On the other hand, performance orientation is marked by an intention to perceive a positive feedback from other people. According to (Bandura, 1977a), self-efficacy is the application of skills based on the capabilities of trainees in terms of job performance and skill acquisition in a particular field. This outcome is designed to credit persistence, value and performance of the employees. Goal setting occurs when trainees plot down specific tasks they need to accomplish which leads to a greater possibility that they exert more time and effort and use it as motivation to get the task done. Three major assertions that presents the importance of goal setting according to (Manz, 1986) are: variability among trainees regarding complexity in developing skills, difference between goal structures of experts and novices (Glaser et al., 1986) and the presence of goals that hold additional implications.The table shown in the article summarizes the different classifications of learning theory applications— cognitive, skill-based and affective theory in relation to its learning constructs, foci of measurement and potential training evaluation methods. Interrelation happens in between learning outcomes which states that a change in one will result to the change of the other. These models will lead to the expectations and relationships that mostly affects the domain as it gives trainees the opportunity to feel the accuracy of current situations and phenomena. (Rouse et al., in press). The construct-oriented approach is beneficial as it does not only focus on identifying the objectives needed to pursue but also focus on the methods used to ensure the success of trainee development towards the objectives. The validity in the measures of training is evident in the table as it helps further enhance performance of trainees which is associated to the development of theories.Developing a theory based on Table 1 follows a complex process wherein it requires the identification of a nomological network that consists of constructing hypotheses, specifying and testing the relations between learning outcomes and variant factors such as characteristics of trainees. These learning tools would present the effects that can possibly occur with the assessment methods and learning objectives.            To conclude, the article speaks about the different theories and disciplines that are used to improve the mental models of trainees’ development to enhance their capabilities in learning and adaptation. In relation to Human Resource Management, having the appropriate model for learning will yield into the success of productivity as it gives the employees efficiency and effectiveness which develop one’s performance and strategizes the ability to accomplish tasks needed.

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