Malaysia using nature of its physical (e.g.

is in a geologically good location which is free from earthquakes, volcanic activities,
and robust winds which include tropical cyclones which periodically have an
effect on some of its associates. It lies geographically just out of doors the “Pacific
Ring of fire.” therefore, it is liberated from volcanic eruptions and
earthquakes. It additionally lies too far south of the major storm paths,
despite the fact that tail-ends of tropical storms have from time to time hit
it. however, that doesn’t mean Malaysia is completely “free” from natural
disasters and calamities, as it’s frequently hit by floods, droughts,
landslides, haze, tsunamis, and human made disasters (Parker et al., 1997).
yearly, disasters consisting of floods account for a great range of casualties,
disease epidemics, property and crop harm and different intangible losses(Chan
et al., 2002).


of all of the disasters in Malaysia, floods are most common and produce the
greatest damage yearly. Floods are consequently taken into consideration as the
most severe type of disaster experienced in Malaysia. historically, there have
been huge flood occasions in 1886, 1926,1931, 1947, 1954, 1957, 1965, 1967,
1970/1971, 1988, 1993, 1996, 2000, 2006/2007,2008, 2009, and 2010. of those floods,
the 1926 flood was referred to as “The storm forest flood” as it thousands of
square kilometers has been destroyed of lowland forest on the floodplains of
the Kelantan and Besut rivers. information display that the flood become observed
through gale force winds (Drainage and Irrigation department, Undated).

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disaster threat in Malaysia

is a rustic very susceptible to flood dangers, in general by using nature of
its physical (e.g. topography and drainage) in addition to its human geography
(e.g. settlement and land use patterns). The mixture of natural and human
elements has produced one-of-a-kind varieties of floods, viz. monsoon, flash
and tidal (Chan, 1998). Malaysians are historically a riverine people, as
historical early settlements grew on the banks of the most important rivers in
the peninsula. Coupled with natural elements along with heavy monsoon rainfall,
excessive convection rain storms, terrible drainage and different neighborhood
factors, floods have become a common characteristic in the lives of a
widespread range of Malaysians. Monsoon and flash floods are the most excessive

natural disasters in Malaysia, with a flood susceptible area of approximately
29,000 km2 affecting greater than 4.82 million human beings (22% of the
population) and causing annual harm of USD 298.29 million (Asian disaster
reduction Centre, 2005) Mitigation andMalaysia’s flood disaster managements.



annual heavy monsoon rains averaging more than 3000 mm and such a large
flood-prone area, flood risk is indeed high, most notably in riverine areas and
coastal flat lands. With such a large population living in flood-prone areas,
flood exposure is high as well. Because of such high flood risks and exposure,
the Malaysian Government is forced to spend a huge amount of its annual budget
to mitigate against floods. Under Malaysia’s 5 yearly Plans for development,
the allocations for design and construction of flood mitigation projects
account for USD 4.564 (1st Malaysia Plan 1966-1970), USD 9.78 million (2nd
Malaysian Plan 1971-1975), USD 32.6million (3rd Malaysia Plan 1976-1980), 65.2
million (4th Malaysia Plan 1981-1985), USD 97.8 million (5th Malaysia Plan
1986-1990), USD 228.2 million (6th Malaysia Plan 1991?1995), USD306.44 million
(7th Malaysia Plan 1996-2000), USD 3.97 billion (8th Malaysia Plan 2001-2005),
USD1.25 billion (9th Malaysia Plan 2006-2010) and USD 1.17 billion (10th
Malaysia Plan 2011-2015).


program and participants

key method to coping with a post-disaster situation is to have a complete
framework or program that contains disaster planning, aid management and output
(recovery and rehabilitation). this sort of program, borne through the
stakeholders, will continuously be capped to certain time and cost limitations.
on this matter  the proposed Malaysian
disaster Preparedness Centre (MDPC) will adopt the coordination of this system,
in direct contact with the Malaysian national safety Council (MKN), national
Hydrology Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), medical remedy Society (MERCY)
Malaysia, Malaysian red Crescent Society as well as other expert parties  and organizations.



mitigation and management

1982 the government conducted a National Water Resources Study on structural
and non-structural measures for flood mitigation and management. Subsequently,
a number of flood mitigation projects were completed, such as canalization of
rivers, raising river embankments and multi-purpose dams. The financial
involvement for such projects was increased in Malaysia’s 5 yearly development
allocations. Such escalating expenditures require the government to be more
proactive in finding ways and means to address the flood problems in a holistic
manner. Government machinery allows the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime
Minister’s Department to coordinate all aspects of planning, design and
implementation of water resources in the country.



previous decades have witnessed a significant increment within the quantity,
scope and complexity of disasters and emergencies. making plans is a technique;
created plans must be examined and evaluated via practice. Helsloot and
Ruitenberg (2004) provide an explanation for that the difference between making
plans and preparedness comes from the practice. making plans have to be the
standard of preparedness. Alexander (2002) described the emergency plan as “a
co-ordinated set of protocols for handling an unfavorable event, whether
predicted or untoward, within the destiny”. each emergency is unique, however
with sufficient common ground among them it is going to be simpler to make
predictions, forecasting, warning, and making plans (Alexander, 2005). consequently,
it’s very important to draw greater attention to emergency preparedness, and
the making plans process to control, get over and overcome emergencies
(Alexander, 2005). Emergency planning and healing may be a great mission to any
business, particularly hospitality industry concerning to the more serious
scenario from experiencing an emergency event a long way from home. In a
troubled destination, travelers are coming from everywhere in the world and
talk various languages (Stahura et al., 2012).






 within the wake of disaster, aid
reorganization is important concerning the challenges dealing with the
accommodations in post-emergency and recovery level based totally on knocking
down the structure of the organization, team managing emergencies (Burritt,
2002). Eisendrath et al. (2008) point out that reconstruction is the case where
the business operations go back again to normalities. When the disastrous
situation stop, disaster recovery effort must start immediately to re-turn
economic, regular social, political practices and encompasses many activities
(Lindell, 2011). Faulkner (2001) stated that healing is the stage in which self
evaluation, recovery, the time required to rebuild damages, and start the
actions. Spillan et al. (2011) point out that within the level of healing an
powerful communication pattern must be activated with key stakeholders to
provide the data and control the emergency scenario. The healing degree gives a
excellentpossibility to grow the domestic organization’s ability to facilitate
all area improvement for a long term after the disaster (Berke et al., 1993).
Berke et al. (1993) argued that healing should provide a couple of advantages
to the parties such as lowering costs, growing effectiveness, updating
regulations, and loweringfuture risk vulnerability, via changing the physical
improvement way and enhance risk mitigation straight away following a disaster.
exceptionally, Drabek (1986) stated that within the four stages of a disaster,
the healing section is the least studied through scholars and the more poorly


one of the very critical levels of disaster existence cycle models proposed
with the aid of several scholars, healing degree receives extra interest in
Roberts (1994), Fink (1986), Mitroff (1988), Pearson and Mitroff (1993) and
Faulkner (2001) models (desk 1). within the healing level, the emergency
control plans can be measured within the methods: First, the rate which the
accommodation or the hospitality groubs ought to heal and maintain business operation;
second of all , to which degree the business heal to the pre-disaster level and
returned to normality’s; and third of all , to which quantity of disaster
resistance delivered to the disastrous situation . In this case hospitality
groups will benefit the accurate information and analyze the classes included
into the preparedness level to avoid any kind of future failures.



management in Malaysia Geographically

is outside the Pacific fringe of the fire and relatively free from any destruction
due to natural disasters which includes volcano, earthquake, or typhoons.
however, it’s subjected to floods, landslides, and haze. additionally, in some
cases  Malaysia experiences a few
humanmade disasters which have an effect on the hospitality industry and make
notable damages to lives and properties (Shaluf, 2006). at some point of the
period of 1968-2004 Malaysia has faced 39 disasters, categorized as natural,
and human-made, as a result caused 1742 deaths and 2713 injuries (Aini et al.,
2001; Khan and Ali, 2001). the problem increases the need for creating  developed warning systems, predict any future
disasters, and effective disaster control to be able to reduce the impact of
such disasters at the hospitality industry (Shaluf, 2006).

the study, Aini and Fakhrul-Razi (2007) point out after several disasters
affected Malaysia the authorities decided to0 lunche a new mechanism for
disasters, and enhance the local awareness, specialized rescue operations
through setting up the unique Malaysian disaster help and Rescue team (smart),
and the NSC to be accountable for disaster control under the Directive No. 20
“The policy and Mechanism of national disaster management and rehabilitation”
(national security Council, 1997). The directive highlights the plan on
disaster control and rehabilitation, additionally the regulation and duties of
various organizations involved in dealing with disasters when happen.
additionally, set up all-inclusive emergency control programs to be properly
organized and insure preparation, prevention, and mitigate the impact of
disasters (Aini and Fakhrul-Razi, 2007). throughout the disaster, the agency of
emergency control and decision-making technique might be at three stages to be
able to control the disaster successfully. the first stage defined as
catastrophic natural events including floods, mudslides, landslides, and water
erosion. the second stage defined as the human-made disasters like pollution, explosion,and

the third stage is when a catastrophe strike more than one states and the
government fail to control to it via their sources, the federal government will
get involved in the disaster reliefs. moreover, use foreign help if wanted
(Shaluf, 2006) (table 2). Elias et al. (2013) clarified sustainable control of
flood dangers in Malaysia: a few instructions from the regulation in England
and Wales. Malaysia lacks an effective mechanism on integration of guidelines
and mechanisms in flood control. Its NSC Directive No. 20 offers some tips,
however then has to depend on defrent regulation not in particular enacted for
dealing with floods.




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