Magnetism and magnetic materials have been an integral part of human life starting from ancient time. The original association of magnetism with human civilization started with the discovery of lodestone. The history of magnetism begins with the ancient Greeks in an area known as Magnesia, an island in the Aegean sea, where certain stones were found. These stones called lodestone which has the unusual property to attract pieces of iron 1.
The antiquated Greeks were the ?rst known to have utilized this mineral, which they called a magnet in light of its capacity to pull in different bits of a similar material and iron. The lodestone (lead stone) pertinent in compass wich is utilized for route in medieval China in the twelfth century. William Gilbert made arti?cial magnets in the sixteenth century by rubbing bits of iron against lodestones. He additionally demonstrated that compass dependably focuses towards north-south bearing on the grounds that the earth itself has attractive properties. In 1970 John Michell of Britain found that the Attractive shafts complies with the converse square law, this outcome was con?rmed by Charles Coulomb 2. In Han’s Christian Oersted found that an electric current creates an attractive ?eld 3. Following this disclosure ?rst electromagnet was made in 1825. Later on Bergmann, Becquerel and Faraday created that even fluid and gases were additionally a?ected by attraction.
Magnetism is a marvel by which materials express an appealing or appalling power on different materials. The idea of magnetism relies on magnetic ?eld and a magnetic dipole. The term magnetic ?eld portrayed a volume of space where there is an adjustment in vitality in the given volume which can be distinguished and estimated. Magnetic Pole is the location where a magnetic ?eld can be identified or entering a material. Magnetic poles have posts have dependably happened in sets, subsequently the name dipole which is de?ned as any two inverse shafts isolated by ?nite distance. A bar magnet can be considered for instance of a dipole with un-distinguishable north shaft toward one side and a south post at the other shaft.