Lymphocytes cases in the United States (Nogai et

Lymphocytes are an essential component of the immune system that helps the body to fight infections and other diseases. The two main types of lymphocytes are T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Although tumors can develop in either, B-cell lymphomas are much more common in the United States than T-cell lymphomas (Howlader et al., 2014). B-cell lymphomas represent approximately 85% of all cases in the United States (Nogai et al., 2011).According to The American Cancer Society (2017), there will be 72,240 new cases of NHL and 20,140 deaths associated with NHL; it is on the list as one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in the United States. NHL is a heterogeneous disease resulting from the malignant effect on both B and T lymphocytes as well as natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, in rare cases. Lymphomas involving the B-cells have the ability to arise from any maturation point in the cell’s development. The median age of onset is approximately 60 years and is believed to continue to increase in the future. In review of all combined subtypes, survival rates at one year for men and women are greater than 70% while the five-year survival rate is above 60% (American Cancer Society, 2017). As NHL diagnoses increase globally, the importance for more research is necessary.Risk Factors Non-Hodgkin lymphoma comprises a group of closely related yet heterogeneous diseases, each characterized by the malignant transformation of lymphoid cells but with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic, genetic, and clinical features (Zelenitz, 2010).  B and T lymphocytes, the most commonly affected white blood cells, are involved in cellular and humoral immunity in our bodies. Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but instead involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen  (King and Myatt, 2014). Humoral immunity is provided by the antibodies present in the body. Lymphocytes are found in the lymphatic system which is made up of lymph, lymph vessels and lymph nodes. A focus of current research in NHL is establishing modifiable factors that prove to increase the risk of being diagnosed with NHL. However, the majority of the research work has been on comparison of different treatment modalities and protocols to alter or create the most effective disease treatment with the least amount of damage to the host.  Modifiable risk factors are an aspect of the trending research in NHL that nurses have the ability to affect through education.  Many people are attuned to the common risk factors of cancer such as smoking, which is responsible for 28 percent of all cancer deaths (Ng et al., 2014). However, when reading literature on the NHL’s risk factors, some are not as mainstream, but can be modified through awareness and education. One of these risk factors pertains to one’s diet.  Yang et al. (2015) found that there is a positive correlation between both red meat and processed meat and NHL. High intake of red meat and processed meat versus low intake was found to increase risk of NHL by 32 percent and 17 percent, respectively. Mozaheb et al. (2012) had confirming findings to that of Yang et al., however, they studied specific types of red meat as well as how each differed in correlation with NHL. These studies concluded that the meat with the highest risk for development of NHL, was ground beef. Ground beef is of higher risk, because the meat is processed and grilled at high temperatures, generating carcinogens and mutagens (such as heterocyclic amines); “it has been shown that these compounds can induce immunotoxicity and lymphoma” (Mozaheb et al., 2012).  Another component found in processed meat that makes it a danger is nitrite, which is used to fight Clostridium botulinum as an antibacterial agent.  Nitrite is also used to create the familiar pinkish color of cured meats.  When nitrites and nitrates react “with secondary amines and N-alkylamides, a process that can occur endogenously… they can become human carcinogens” (Abid et al., 2014).Although many research projects have established similar findings on correlations

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