Knowing how the researcher predicted men and women

Knowing Is Half the Battle

Kam Shien-Yi

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B1702319

Department of Psychology

PSY 113

Dr Prihadi Kususanto

Mr Christopher Tan Jit Meng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           

Research Question
– Is there a relationship between educating
women about stereotype threat and enhancing performance in stereotype-relevant
tasks?

 

Hypotheses – Acknowledgement
of stereotype threat enhance performance in stereotype-relevant tasks.

 

Theoretical
framework – Describe theoretical framework here
in sentence format.

 

General Method
– There were a total of 117 finalized participants (75 women and 42 men), who are
introductory statistics student, volunteered for extra credit. They were randomly
assigned to one of the three conditions in a 2 (gender) x 3 (tests). This
experiment is supervised by either a male or female experimenter. The
experimenter would play an audio-recorded description of the study during the
conditions and different instruction were given respectively. The first
condition was problem-solving condition, where the participants were told to
complete an exercise to study cognitive processes. The second condition is
math-test condition, participants were asked to complete a test to study gender
differences in mathematics performance, whereas the last condition,
teaching-intervention condition, which is the same as the math-test condition,
but in this condition researcher will inform the participants about negative
effects about stereotype threat and includes an explanation about women’s
anxiety and true abilities. After that, participants were asked to complete a
questionnaire with two manipulation checks. Using 7-point scales, participants
rated on the perception on male researcher thought gender stereotype could
weaken performance on a test, and their perception on how the researcher predicted
men and women would differ in performances. Lastly, participants were told to
rate whether gender stereotype have influences on anxiety when tests to assess
attribution.

 

Findings &
Conclusions – Findings have showed that stereotype
threat increased women’s confidence and encourage them towards success in the
teaching-intervention condition by analyzing the perceptions of participants of
the researcher’s expectation. In the manipulation checks, analysis showed that
participants in the teaching-intervention condition have perceived that the
male researcher thought negative gender stereotypes could weaken performance
compared to the other two conditions. Women ratings were also higher on the
role of gender stereotypes compared to men. Besides, in the
teaching-intervention condition, mainly women participants than men think that
the researcher expected men to outperform women compared to the other two
conditions. Furthermore, for the test performance, women and men were equally
accurate in the problem-solving condition, whereas women were less accurate in
the math-test condition. In the teaching-intervention condition, women
performed equally to men in the same condition, to women in problem-solving
condition, and even outperformed women in the math-test condition. Additionally,
the analysis of attribution to gender stereotype suggested that in both
math-test and teaching intervention condition, participants who are women
rather than men, reported that gender stereotypes led to anxiety, and were
significantly higher in problem-solving condition. This showed that emphasizing
gender stereotypes on tests would boost women’s belief that stereotypes
influences their anxiety. However, informing participants about the negative
effect of stereotype threat would be necessary to improve their performances.

 

Future Research –
Write & justify future research here
based on what the lead paper you have chosen has found.

 

Practical
Implications – Write & justify how the findings
of the lead paper you have chosen can be used in a practical way.

 

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