IntroductionThis 1960)A large part of what has

IntroductionThis report analyses the increasingly pervasive reach of technology and communications from the history of the beginnings of the internet up until the modern day, and the possibilities this entails for the future. The research investigates the prevalent usage of the Internet to institute change in global markets as a “Market Governance Mechanism (MGM)”(Kim, 2005), especially relating to the dangers that private monopolies in regard to market power and the free market. The report also delves into the origins of the internet and networking, beginning in 1962 with DARPA, and the advantages of packet switching over circuit switching, which is what allowed the internet to become relatively easy to pervade its way into everyday life. The concepts of “Mechanically Extended Man” and “Man-Computer Symbiosis”, as well as their differences from each other and from what is conventionally called Artificial Intelligence, was investigated – the aims of Man-Computer Symbiosis being to have a computer system capable of solving problems without the requirement of predetermination of those problems, as “a computer is incapable of solving a problem without being told exactly how to do it in the first place.”(Licklider, 1960)A large part of what has made the internet into what it is today, as more than just a solution to the problem of multiple networks as opposed to what the internets predecessor ARPANET was (a solution to the earlier problem in networking developments, the inability to communicate between computers of different OS’s(Kilnam Chon et al., 2013)), stems from the collaboration on an international scale between the U.S. and countries throughout Europe, including the U.K., France, Germany and Norway. Only twenty years after the origins of networking research in 1962, the TCP/IP network in South Korea started (1982). SDN(System Development Network) was initially constructed of just two nodes, between a computer at Seoul National University and another at Korea Institute of Electronics Technology in Gumi, and thus this was Korea’s first internet. Within a year Korea had begun to connect to other countries networks, notably the mcvax in the Netherlands and hplabs in the U.S. (, 2018)Due to the far-reaching scope of the internet, and the ability to increase its scope over a short amount of time, what can be called the “internet landscape” is growing exponentially. More than 3.9 billion connected devices were in use in 2016, whereas in 2014 the number was closer to 5 million. Light switches, fridges, washing machines and locks are all becoming internet connected, and the umbrella term for all these things that are becoming connected to the internet has now been begun to be dubbed the “Internet of Things.”(,  2016)DiscussionThe conception of the internet occurred in 1962 in memos written by a member of MIT at the time, J.C.R. Licklider. He envisioned a “Galactic Network”(Internet Society, 1997), computers connected throughout the world to create a network where anybody could access data or programs from anywhere else in the world. It was, however, the discovery that circuit switching would be insufficient for the internet’s needs, despite it being feasible for telephone systems, that brought the concept of the internet to fruition in the invention of packet switching. This was discovered in 1965 when Lawrence G. Roberts, spurred by the persuasion of Licklider who had gone on to work at DARPA, created the first wide-area computer network over a dial-up telephone system between the TX-2 in Texas and the Q-32 in California.(Internet Society, 1997)The internet would become one of the most important technological advancements of our time, and by the 1980’s the military was taking an active hand in attempting to increase effectiveness of it. Up until that point, there was ARPANET, one of the first packet switching networks which also lead to electronic mail and mailing lists. Widespread internet communication was becoming available throughout Europe and the U.S., and yet by this point, the U.S. Department of Defense felt the need for new updated capabilities, as ARPANET was quickly reaching its limits. Up until that point, different computers had been incompatible, and instead of everyone being a part of one large internet community, the internet was split due to simple inability to communicate between differing computer operating systems, such as the UNIX community which went on to create Usenet and UUCPnet.(Kilnam Chon et al., 2013) In order to create this interconnectedness,  the idea was to create a network of networks, using a collection of common protocols which became known as TCP/IP.Computers have always been increasing in storage capacity, efficiency and indeed, communication capacity. (Hilbert and Lopez, 2011) In a study performed in 2011, U.S. researchers showed that the ability for computers “to store, communicate, and compute information” has increased at an annual rate of 58%” from 1985 to 2007, and a large part of the reasoning behind this is the universal use of Telecommunication, which is how the Internet came to be. This widespread interconnectivity and the ability for computer devices to be accessed from anywhere in the world is the reason why we are able to have the “Internet of Things.” The Internet of Things is a broad term which can generally be said to encompass all electronics, software and especially sensors that are able to connect to each other and exchange some form of data.(Ergonomic requirements…, 1993) These form a mixture of hardware, software, and data that come together to perform a service in modern life.Because there are now a large number of devices able to connect to the internet, there is an equally large number of applications for these internet-connected devices in both consumer and enterprise markets. Smart Home devices are an example of a consumer application, where the user can control their lighting/heating, television or music and even connect security systems such as motion sensors and cameras to a controller, or their phone. As is true with much of the Internet of Things applications, the benefit with this application is the ‘ease of usability’ (Contracting for the ‘Internet of Things’, 2016) that stems from being able to both control many things from one device and also put all that data and control into a single, easy to comprehend format.Furthermore, the Internet of Things has found itself useful in corporate settings too. By collecting user’s data in regard to their browsing habits, advertising is able to have the maximum effect on the target individuals on a personal level, and this can also be called the “Internet of Business”. This can be taken even further, with some companies tracking how quickly consumers get through what they’re consuming, how many continue to use it and how often they use it. It’s estimated that by 2019, this Internet of Business will comprise of over 9 billion devices, which will be 40% of all devices worldwide. (Greenough, 2015)ConclusionAlmost sixty years ago, the internet was made up of just two computers able to send relatively small amounts of data back and forth across half a continent, and yet in the modern-day, roughly 20 billion devices will be connected to the “Internet of Things”. So, if we’ve managed to come this far, what’s next? Self-driving cars are already becoming possible, so it’s not unreasonable to suggest that within the next thirty years everyone will be able to commute without even having to touch their steering wheel, allowing on the technology in their car to drive in a way that’s even safer than human interaction would be – especially when you consider that every other car on the road will similarly be connected to the same network. On the way home from work, traffic lights may automatically turn green and red at the appropriate times in order to ease traffic congestion and ensure the most efficient commute possible – of course, it’ll be relaying this to the car driving you all the while, ensuring you’re able to take the fastest route home. And when you return home, your door will automatically unlock as you come up the front drive, and you’ll enter to find it already heated to your liking, perhaps with some coffee already steaming on the counter and some jazzy music playing in the background. It won’t be long before we’re able to control almost everything in our lives over the internet.


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