Introduction which a software application interacts with the

Introduction Telecommunications services. Communication Email, this is a service in which users can send messages to each other or to multiple people simultaneously. This service allows you to also attach content. This can be very useful in a work place as a user can send a piece of work to another user with ease, as they will not need to print.  Internet relay chat (IRC), this is a program in which a user can download onto their computer in which a common protocol is used to allow two or more users to send and receive text messages.  Discussion boards; this is an online bulletin board in which users can post a discussion on a thread and users can reply on the discussion giving their own input. Remote access, this refers to being able to access a computer in a remote location. For example a user could access their home computer from work using a remote access program. This also allows employees to work from home as they can access their office computer from the comfort of their own home.  Social networking, this is an online platform in which users can interact with each other through decentralisation. This means that two users could be on miles apart but still able to communicate. Social networking can also be used to find users with similar interests to your own.  Files services. File transfer; this is the transmission of a file from one computer to another computer. This is done through a communication channel in which both computers share a common protocol.  File sharing; this is the practice of making files on one computer available to another computer without using file transfer. This is done by using a shared drive in which both computer can connect to and receive data.  Application services. Application software: Database, this is an organised collection of data in which a software application interacts with the end-users, itself and other applications in order to capture and analyse data. The sole purpose of this is for data to enter and to be retrieved, a good example of this is database that controls stock for a retailer with a lot of inventory. This is because stock can easily be controlled by simply entering and requesting data into the database.  Web, a web application is a client-server program which is ran on the users side as well as the server side to allow the user to use web based applications. Some common web applications are email, online shopping websites, instant messaging and many other functions. Each of these applications are services in which a user creates requests and a service produces the outcome.   Proxy, this is an application that runs on a firewall system between two networks so when a client connects to a destination they will connect to an application gateway before connecting to the final destination this is known as a gateway or a proxy.  Shared resources Printing; shared resources are very useful as rather than having a printer for every single computer within a corporation a shared printer can be installed and multiple computers can connect to this one printer. This is very useful as it is extremely cost efficient as users can simply make a request to the printer whenever they require to use it.  Storage space; shared storage is very useful as this means multiple users can access the same files without having to using file transferring. This is very efficient and useful within a work place, as a worker can easily ask a colleague to check a piece of work for them without having to send the file as it will be located on a shared drive that both users can access from their work station. This works by both computers being attached to a network in which is connected to multiple large hard drives solely dedicated for sharing resources.  Voice over IP (VoIP); Voice over internet protocol is a group of technologies or a methodology of transferring speech from one user to another user over a network. Common applications that provide such a service are Skype, FaceTime, Discord and TeamSpeak 3.  Mobile working; new technologies that have recently become available because of the rise of smart phones they have given workers the ability to work from their phone, this is because it is far easy to access information and being able to work regardless of the location. For example a doctor can carry a mobile ultrasound device that they can simply connect to their phone and then carry out an ultrasound test to detect trauma before the patient has even been taken to the hospital. Authentication Users; the process of authenticating users consists of a process I which credentials provided by the user are taken and analysed by a database to then use comparison to determine whether or not the user should be allowed or denied authentication. This is more commonly known as a username and password.  Hardware; hardware authentication is a small piece of hardware in which the user will carry round with them and when they want to access a network using a specific computer they will be required to use the small piece of hardware to access the database.  Directory services. Active directory, this is a piece of Microsoft technology which is used to manage computers and other devices on a network. This service allows network administrators to create and manage domains, users and other aspects within a network. Active directory is essential a tool for administrators they can categorise clients and users and also give specific access privileges. Account management; this is a service in which a person will work for a company to solely manage and be responsible for the companies clients. So if a client has an issue with their account then they will contact this person in order to resolve the issue. Authentication management, this is the process of identifying an individual based on a username and password. This is done by comparing the details the user has inputted with the details saved in the database to confirm authentication.  DNS; short for domain name system, this is the internet’s system for converting names that are displayed alphabetically into numeric IP addresses. For example, when a URL is entered into a browser, DNS servers return the IP address of the web server associated with that name. Directory Service Evaluation; however with all of the advantages of active directory there are just as many disadvantages, with the first being that active directory can be complex to initially set-up because of this complexity it is automatically brought down. For example if a mistake was made during the initial setup then this can result in a lot of issues rising in the future for the school. This will be very time consuming as they will need to first diagnose the issue then begin to fix it. If the issue cannot be found then the school will then result in having to uninstall the whole active directory to then begin from square one again. Another issue about active directory is that it is solely windows based so other products that are not Microsoft will not be able to be managed using active directory. Although it is not important or required for an organisation to have an active directory it is very useful if the organisation has a large number of clients as they can manage all of these clients in an organised manner in one place. However if the school does become to rely on the active directory and they run into a problem which causes the active directory to have down time then major disruptions can be caused to the school resulting in a halt in education.  Account management; as I spoke on before accounts have usernames and passwords this is simply for security reasons, as well as being able to authorise accounts to do specific things. This is means that the account manager can limit users appropriately to what they should be allowed to do, for example someone within the HR department should not be able to access files within sales department and vise versa. This is done to stop less tech savvy employees from accidentally deleting work. The account manager typically will have all the privileges, this is also a security feature to stop hackers from gaining authorisation in which they can then use this for malicious intentions.  Authentication management; this is the act of verifying whether a client should be granted accesses to a network by comparing the credentials the user has inputted with database to compare and match if the user has authentication or not. This is great because it ensures that everyone is logged into the network has authentication. Another level of authentication can be used by using email verification, text verification or mobile authenticators this is known as 2 factor authentication. Without authentication the network wouldn’t know who to grant privileges to and what privileges should be granted to who. Active directory; once a user has logged onto their account and their privileges have been granted the network needs to make sure they have the correct privileges. A good way to get around this is to split files into categories so that users with specific privileges can only access specific files. The reason of using an active directory is how easy it is to go back and change settings and permissions. For example if a students computer stops working and they are forced to use a computer outside of this classroom a user with privileges can easily give the student on the new computer privileges to access their work easily. A teacher can also take control of all the computer within a classroom with the click of a button using active directory. The main disadvantage with active directory is that it is very costly and time consuming to set-up so any issues that are encountered are not easy to solve. DNS; this is a piece of software that allows websites to be accessed and remembered by giving them an alphabetical name rather than hard to remember  

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