This paper will examine the
use of concordance to role of parts of speech, particularly proper and common
noun both in English and Urdu languages. In a language, words can be considered
as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings, based on their use and
functions, words are categorized into parts of speech (noun, pronoun, verb,
adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition and interjection).
Noun is used as a name of person, thing or
place. Pronouns are used to refer nouns, verbs are those which show some
action, adverb which modify noun, pronoun, adjective and verb, adjective
modifies noun, conjunction use to connect clauses and sentences, prepositions
noun or pronoun expressing relation to another word in clause, Interjection use
to convey emotions. This research will use the sample of 31 Urdu novels by
Umera Ahmad and 15 novels by Charles Dickens. The results will show the
significance use of parts of speech in two different languages by two different
writers. The basic aim of this study to analyze the frequencies of each part of
speech and point out whether Urdu language requires more proper or common noun
or English language demand for more Common or Proper.
Statement of the problem:
This paper will help to be aware with the
contrastive features between Urdu and English language. Urdu and English languages are two different languages
even these languages organized separately with different structure, English language
has SVO (subject) (verb)(object) while on the other hand Urdu language has SOV
sentence structure. This research paper will be conducted to contrast features
(Parts of Speech) between English and Urdu language on the basis of corpus of
31 Urdu novels by Umera Ahmad and 13 English novels by Charles Dickens.
Significance of the Problem
Most frequently use of Proper nouns make the
text clear and specific. This research will show the results either Urdu or
English language novelist is much conscious to make text clear and specific.
The researcher will analyze the significant features of two most familiar languages
in the world. English language is an International language and Urdu is
particularly known as the language of Pakistan. Stylistic analysis of selected
novels will show the consequences of particular style adopted by famous writer
Umera Ahmad (Urdu novelist) and Charles Dickens (English novelist).
Purpose and Scope
Stylistics is the study of variations in written
and spoken text by using linguistic features. The purpose of this study: 1.
specify the style of novelists, 2. use of those parts of those parts of speech
which make the text specific, 3. contrastive features of two different languages
(Urdu and English).
In 1993 HABIR ARORA and K.V SUBBARAO worked
to bring out the valuable contribution of contrastive analysis can made towards
the study of syntactic change. It is generally agreed that there are two approaches
to contrastive studies 1. Theoretical and applied. Theoretical contrastive
studies are “language Independent” and they look for the realization of a
universal category in language to be contrastive (Fisiak). Taking into
consideration the syntax of the dative and genitive constructions in Dakkhini. Abbreviations used by Habir and Subbarao the
given paper are: ADJR (adjectivalizer), COMP (complementizer), DAT (dative),
EMPH (emphatic), ERG (ergative), GEN (genitive), IFN (infinitive), NEG (
negative), PERF (perfect), PPLE (participle), PST ( past). Dakhini like a
Telugu is a dative preferring language whereas the Urdu-Hindi is genitive proffering.
Teaching English to the Indonesian students
is not as difficult as most people imagine. “Contrastive Analysis” play a very
decisive role and contribute very much to the successful of doing this (Koencoro, 2006). The researcher want
to reveal the similarities and dissimilarities of the two languages, Indonesian
and English, in the morphological, syntactical, and sociolinguistics levels.
Contrastive analysis in general term is an inductive investigative approach based
on the distinctive elements in a language (Kardaleska,
2006). The method of analyzing the structure of any two languages with a
view to estimate the differential aspects of their system, irrespective or
their genetic affinity of level development (Geethakumary, 2006). The term “Contrastive linguistics” was
suggested by Whorf, for comparative study which is giving emphasis on
linguistic differences. Plural here refers to the form of a noun or a verb
which refers to more than one person or thing. English expresses plural
implicitly by creating patterns how to use –s and –es. Indonesian on the other
hand expresses plural explicitly. No definite rules how to create a plural form
of a word except by reduplication. Indonesian sentence is; Subject, Verb,
Object or Adjective or Adverb. In syntactical term, simply we use the
definition of S = NP.VP. sentence may come from NP.VP, or NP.NP, or NP.AP or
NP.PP. In English, the order strictly lies on S = NP.VP (sometimes VP with to
be or linking verb). Passive is rarely use in speech, yet it occurs often in
academic writing. The passive form of a verb phrase contain this pattern; be +
past participle in English. In Indonesian, passive is shown by adding di-
before a verb. English is a subject prominent language.Yet in Indonesian, the
subject may be omitted (Zero subject sentence). Code switching and code mixing
similar to both languages.
In 2009, Nguyen Kim Phung and
Nguyen Ngoc Vu investigate the structure of noun phrase, comparison and
contrast between the structure of English noun phrase and Vietnamese noun
phrase, implications for language teaching and language learning. According to
Jackson, an English noun phrase has the following formula: Pre-modification +Head +Post modification. Vietnamese
noun phrases have two parts: the head and the modification composed of the
pre-modification and post-modification. The minimum requirement of a noun
phrase both in English and Vietnamese is a head noun. If we want to add more
color to a noun phrase, we can make use of pre-modification and
post-modification. A contrastive analysis view of the structure of noun phrases
in English and Vietnamese gives us an insight into the similarities and
differences between the two equivalent linguistic units in the two languages.
Jumanto argues that English noun
phrases are of three types: (1) standard noun phrases, (2) creative noun
phrases, (3) elliptical noun phrases. The data analyses of newspapers and
magazines are done through a syntactical analysis, based on theories of noun
phrases and their internal constructions by some expert. Baker has divided
English noun phrases into two main types: elementary noun phrases and portative
noun phrases. According to Baker elementary noun phrases can be of: (1)
pronouns and proper nouns, (2) elementary noun phrases introduced by
determiners and genitives, (3) elementary noun phrases introduced by quantity
words, (4) bare noun phrases, (5) elementary noun phrases introduced by a or
an, (6) a special possibility for proper nouns, and some special combined forms.
The model of noun phrases by Greenbaum is in general as follows: (determiners)
(pre-modifiers) noun (post-modifiers). Contemporary English noun phrases, based
on the findings of this research, are of three types, i.e. (a) standard noun
phrases, (b) special noun phrases of type 1 (creative noun phrases), and (c)
special noun phrases of type 2 (elliptical noun phrases); (2) Standard noun
phrases are constructions resulting from the arrangement of modifiers around
the Head. The noun phrase constructions can be of three patterns: (a)
(pre)modifier + Head; (b) Head + (post-) modifier, and (c) (pre-) modifier +
Head + (post-) modifier.
What is the frequency distribution
of parts of speech in 31 Urdu novels by Umera Ahmad and 13 English novels by
Which content of Parts of Speech
is most frequently used, which is less and which is least frequently used by
Urdu and English Novelists?
What is the frequency of proper
noun by English / Urdu novelist or which writer’s work is specific?
Data collected in any research becomes
meaningful only when it is well organized and explained (Krippendorff 2004).
Data Resources: The source of data considered
for this study will be collection of all novels written by Umera Ahmad and
Phase 1: The first part of this project will
be a corpus containing sample of Novels by Umera Ahmad and Charles Dickins.
Phase 2: Second step would name those
Last name of auther_published date_Novel
abbrevation (initial letters) _M (male)/FM (female)
Phase 4: Pdf files will be convert into Microsoft word. PDF (Portable Document Format) is a
file format that has captured all the elements of a printed document as an
electronic image that you can view, navigate, print, or forward to someone
else. PDF files are created using Adobe Acrobat, Acrobat Capture, or similar
products. To view and use the files, you need the free Acrobat Reader, which
you can easily download. Once you’ve downloaded the Reader, it will start
automatically whenever you want to look at a PDF file. These 5 steps are used
to convert PDF file in word document.
Conversion process for English novels
1. Open the PDF file
2. Use the Export PDF tool
3. Customize conversion settings
4. Export the file
5. Get to work in Office
Step 1 of 5
Open the PDF file
Start Acrobat, and open the PDF file you want to export.
If you opened it recently, select it from the list of recent files in the
Acrobat Home screen. Otherwise, click My
Computer under Storage, navigate to the PDF file, and choose Open.
If you’re using our sample assets, select theSummary.pdf file to export
to Word, Analysis.pdf file to export
to Excel, or Overview.pdf file
to export to PowerPoint. Some PDF files have security settings that
prevent exporting and editing. If you created the PDF file, you should be able
to change or remove any restrictive security settings.
Step 2 of 5
Use the Export PDF tool
PDF in the Tools panel. Then choose a format, and click Export.
To export to a Word document,
click Microsoft Word, and then
select either Word Document (.docx format) or Word 97-2003 Document (.doc
To export to an Excel document,
click Spreadsheet, and then select
either Microsoft Excel Workbook (.xlsx format) or XML Spreadsheet 2003
To export to a PowerPoint
You can use the Export PDF tool to export images, HTML
documents, and other formats as well.
Step 3 of 5
Customize conversion settings
If you want to specify settings for the exported
document, click the Settings icon
next to the document type, change the settings, and then click OK.
Step 4 of 5
Export the file
Select a folder for the exported file, or click choose a Different Folder and
navigate to the appropriate folder. Name your document, and click Save. Select Open file after export in
the Export dialog box if you want to work with the file immediately.
Step 5 of 5
Get to work in
document in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, if it’s not already open. Your document
is live in the native Office format, so you can edit text, images, and other
data just as you can in any other Office document.
Phase 4: Data clearance: Edited all the
files which converted from Pdf to Microsoft word. In edition remove the
citation, key words, header footer, running head, diagrams, tables, references
from converted paper
How to convert Word Document
files into plain-text files
In order to
use the contents of a Word Document (“.doc” or “.docx” extension) in a
concordance it must be converted or saved as a plain text file (“.txt”
extension). I will outline two different ways you can do this below.
Open the document in Word,
“select all” (ctrl+A),
Notepad (found in Start > All Programs
(ctrl+V) the content into Notepad,
to tag the data for the analysis of Parts of speech of selected corpus. Online
taggers are easily accessible.
Open the given
(found in google > online tagger)
Select all the
Past into new notepad
Urdu pdf to inpage
To the approach of results use a
Table: 6 month time schedule of writing
Total: 6 months
Literature review: 2 months
Data collection: 1.5 months
Data analysis: 1.5 months
Writing report: 1 month