Qu?lity M?n?gement (TQM) could simply be expl?ined ?s ? structured ?nd ?
comprehensive ?ppro?ch tow?rds org?niz?tion?l m?n?gement, which ?ims to improve
the qu?lity of products ?nd services produced by ?n org?niz?tion through
ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedb?ck (ASQ, 2017).
Tot?l Qu?lity M?n?gement (TQM) refers to ? str?tegy th?t focuses on constructing
qu?lity ?w?reness in ?ll the processes of ?n org?niz?tion. O?kl?nd (Oakland, 2003), ? renowned ?uthor
of qu?lity m?n?gement, defined Tot?l Qu?lity
?s “philosophy, culture, str?tegy or m?n?gement style of ? comp?ny ?ccording
to which ?ll persons in the s?me, study, pr?ctice, p?rticip?te ?nd promote
continuous qu?lity improvement”. The concept of Tot?l Qu?lity M?n?gement (TQM)
could ?lso be expl?ined ?s ? continuous improvement process, with the ?im of ?chieving
optim?l qu?lity in ?ll ?re?s, which in Disney’s c?se would be its movies,
television shows, ?nd the Disneyl?nd the biggest theme p?rk in the world.
W?lt Disney is ? huge comp?ny
founded in the United St?tes in 1923, which is n?med ?fter its founder, W?lter
Eli?s Disney. W?lt Disney w?s origin?lly closely rel?ted to the production of
dr?wings ?nd ?nim?ted films, including the f?mous “Mickey Mouse”, who rem?ins
to be the br?nd ?mb?ss?dor of the comp?ny even tod?y (Wikipedia, 2017). Tod?y, The W?lt Disney Comp?ny is
present throughout the world, ?nd h?s p?rks, produces films, owns television ch?nnels,
h?s resorts ?nd sells ?ll sorts of merch?ndises, so there ?re sever?l comp?nies
within this gre?t comp?ny.
W?lt Disney from its inception
h?s ?lw?ys ?imed to m?int?in ? strong commitment to qu?lity entert?inment b?sed
on its leg?cy of exception?l qu?lity ?nd cre?tivity, m?n?ging to st?y in pl?ce
for m?ny ye?rs, c?using both gr?ndp?rents ?s sm?ll children continues to be
entert?ined by Mickey Mouse ?nd ?ll his friends (Wikipedia, 2017). Throughout the ye?rs, The W?lt Disney
Comp?ny h?s grown enormous ?nd turned out h?ving four m?jor comp?nies in which ?ll
t?sks ?re divided. ?mong them most signific?nt is Disney Studio Entert?inment.
The cre?tion ?nd production of films ?nd ?nim?tions ?re distributed to the
public through “W?lt Disney Pictures,” which includes Mir?m?x Films, Pix?r ?nim?tion,
W?lt Disney ?nim?tion Studios, Studios, Disney Toon Studios, Touchstone
Pictures ?nd Hollywood Pictures.
Moreover, it h?s developed
Disney P?rks ?nd Resorts, the comp?ny th?t begins with the cre?tion of the
first theme p?rk, Disneyl?nd in C?liforni?. Disneyl?nd offici?lly Disneyl?nd P?rk
since the 1990s, is ? p?rk loc?ted in ?n?heim C?liforni?, United St?tes. It w?s
the first p?rk of its kind built by The W?lt Disney Comp?ny, ?nd the only one
th?t w?s designed ?nd built under the supervision of producer ?nd filmm?ker W?lt
Disney. Disneyl?nd w?s built with the ?im of diversifying the business model
with the construction of ?n ?musement p?rk. Disneyl?nd opened its doors to the
press ?nd invited guests on July 17, 1955, just over ? ye?r ?fter th?t would st?rt
construction, ?nd the next d?y it w?s open to the public. ?lthough some executives other p?rks Disneyl?nd
believed would f?il, in its first week recorded ?n ?ttend?nce of over 160,000
people. In 1957, two ye?rs ?fter its opening, Disneyl?nd w?s one of the m?jor
tourist ?ttr?ctions in the United St?tes, surp?ssing in popul?rity to pl?ces
like the Gr?nd C?nyon or Yellowstone N?tion?l P?rk. It is estim?ted th?t 2015 h?s been one of the
?musement p?rks busiest ye?r worldwide besides being visited by over 700
million people since its opening (Company, 2017).
W?lt Disney is credited with h?ving “redefined the concept of f?mily v?c?tions”
?nd h?s been listed ?s ? “tourist mecc?.”
The design, divided into subject ?re?s, proved to be ? novel concept ?t
the time ?nd the incorpor?tion of robots ?udio-?nim?tronics used in some of its
?ttr?ctions ?nd the first roller co?ster built with tubul?r steel history.
Disney Consumer Products is ?n
enterprise of the comp?ny dedic?ted to the exp?nsion of Disney-br?nded
products, which include ? huge r?nge of products r?nging from toys, clothes,
books, electronic g?mes, drinks, food, to electronics ?nd p?rts of ?rt. Fin?lly,
Disney Medi? Networks is one ?re? th?t de?ls with business rel?ted to r?dio, c?ble
television, Internet ?nd ?dvertising of The W?lt Disney Comp?ny. This comp?ny h?s
sever?l TV ch?nnels ?nd r?dios, ?mong which could be mentioned W?lt Disney
Internet Group, Disney-?BC Television Group, ?BC Owned Television St?tions ?nd
ESPN Inc. ?s ?lre?dy mentioned, the comp?ny is ?lso eng?ged in m?rketing, ?dvertising,
rese?rch, s?les ?nd communic?tions of this huge comp?ny.
OF DISNEYL?ND’S BUSINESS ENTERPRISE’S ?ND DEVELOPMENT OF TQM
W?lt Disney is ?mong the few
org?niz?tions of the world th?t h?s been successful in incorpor?ting new
concepts of the qu?lity in the definition of the Tot?l Qu?lity M?n?gement. With
the ?im of p?ying ?ttention to every minute det?il, Disney ?ims to exceed the
expect?tions of its guests visiting the theme p?rk. Disneyl?nd considers its
guest ?s VIPs, ?nd very individu?l people ?lso, ? f?ctor th?t contributes tow?rds
the success of the Disney is people serving the people. Disney believes it is
up to them to m?ke life e?sier for the guests ?t the Disneyl?nd. Every time ?
guest returns b?ck to the Disneyl?nd there expect?tion ?re even higher (Ingelson, 2012). This is the re?son
why Disney strictly believes in ?ttention to minute det?ils, ?nd providing its
guests with VIP tre?tment ?s ?n extremely import?nt f?ctor of the success of
the Corpor?tion ?s ? whole.
W?lt Disney Comp?ny demonstr?tes
exception?l qu?lity when it comes to the oper?ting of Disneyl?nd. The focus of
Disneyl?nd is tow?rds customer s?tisf?ction, with specific focus over the role
of the employees in delivery of service. W?lt Disney views its employees ?s ?n
essenti?l org?niz?tion?l resource; this is the re?son why gre?t c?re is t?ken
in the hiring ?nd tr?ining process of the employees. ?t Disney ?ll the
employees ?re known ?s “c?st members,” reg?rdless of whether they ?re
performers, or j?nitors. Disney tr?ins its employees extensively in customer
service, qu?lity ?w?reness ?nd communic?tion. Continu?l monitoring of qu?lity
is considered ?s ?n essenti?l component ?t Disneyl?nd, ?nd employees regul?rly
meet together in order to ev?lu?te their effectiveness. ?ll employees ?re
provided with ? brief illustr?tion of how the qu?lity of their individu?l jobs
contributes to the success of the Disneyl?nd (Ingelson, 2012).
Disney ?ims to provide the
people visiting their theme p?rk with ? high level customer service. In order
to ensure th?t e?ch ?nd every customer visiting Disneyl?nd experience the
highest st?nd?rds, Disney ensured th?t every employee h?s ?n essenti?l role to
pl?y in contributing tow?rds the excellent products ?nd services offered to the
customers ?t Disneyl?nd. Through the utiliz?tion of Tot?l Qu?lity M?n?gement
(TQM), Disney implemented ? culture of Innov?tion, Design Engineering Org?niz?tion
(IDEO’S), under which Disney follows ? non-hier?rchic?l org?niz?tion culture (Anser Plouis, 2016). Under the IDEO’S
the employees ?t Disneyl?nd does not rew?rded b?sed on the seniority of the r?nks
within the comp?ny, but the employees ?re rew?rded b?sed on the number of
projects th?t he or she h?s undert?ken.
This en?bled Disney to est?blish
? system, in which the voice of e?ch ?nd every employee is being he?rd. Through
the implement?tion of IDEO’S Disney succeeded in removing the existenti?l hier?rchy
from its org?niz?tion?l culture. This w?s the willingness th?t w?s possessed by
W?lt Disney for disclosing the corpor?te inform?tion to e?ch ?nd every employee
working within the org?niz?tion. W?lt Disney ?lw?ys looked tow?rds the f?cilit?tion
of openness ?nd tr?nsp?rency in the process of communic?tion within the org?niz?tion
(Sheikh, 2016). Disney through the ?doption of Tot?l
Qu?lity M?n?gement (TQM) succeeded in est?blishing ? system for effectively
conveying the import?nt mess?ges to ?ll of his employees ?nd m?de them felt
like ? p?rt of the comp?ny ?s employees h?d ?n equ?lly import?nt role to pl?y
within the org?niz?tion. It is the employees working within the org?niz?tion th?t
will provide ? high qu?lity of service ?nd products to the consumer through
continuous feedb?cks ?nd suggestion rel?ted to improvements, which will help
them become more competitive ?nd ensure m?inten?nce of high qu?lity st?nd?rds
of Disney. Furthermore, Disney ?lw?ys strives to provide its employees ?n
environment which is both enjoy?ble ?nd productive ?t the s?me time, ?nd ?n
environment in which the employees could re?lize their full potenti?l ?nd
fulfill their c?reer ?spir?tions.
ST?FF TR?INING ?T DISNEY
Edw?rds Deming st?ted th?t qu?lity
does not me?n luxury. Qu?lity is ? predict?ble degree of uniformity ?nd reli?bility,
low cost ?nd ?d?pted to m?rket. In other words, qu?lity is everything consumers
need ?nd cr?ve (Deming, 2012). Since the needs ?nd desires of
consumers ?re ?lw?ys ch?nging, how to define the qu?lity with reference to the
consumer is to const?ntly redefine the requirements. It incre?ses productivity
while decre?sing v?ri?bility.
Thus, following the principle
proposed by Deming Disneyl?nd st?tes th?t tr?ining of the st?ff members is
necess?ry, ?nd the foremost p?rt of their business str?tegy since they ?re
providing ? service to the consumers ?nd they c?n only qu?lity service through
providing their st?ff with high qu?lity tr?ining. Following ?re the points proposed by Deming
which ?re followed by Disney
reli?bility of function for improvement of service: This vision of Disneyl?nd
guides the corpor?te culture ?nd provides ?n objective to the org?niz?tion.
new philosophy: It is essenti?l to continuously upd?te its process of providing
?dequ?te tr?ining to ?ll of its employees to keep up with the ch?nging m?rket ?nd
dependence on inspection to ?chieve qu?lity: Disneyl?nd utilizes modern tools
such ?s st?tistic?l process control, the evolving oper?tions, experience design
?nd deployment of the qu?lity function, with the ?im of ?ssessing ? problem ?nd
looks to minimize the tot?l cost to oper?te; end the pr?ctice of ?lloc?ting
oper?tions only on the b?sis of price.
const?ntly ?nd forever every process: Disney believes th?t the process of
improvement is const?nt ?nd incre?sed productivity const?ntly reducing costs.
Through const?nt tr?ining to its st?ff members Disneyl?nd ?ims to overcomes
defects ?nd improve the process.
institute in function: ?t Disneyl?nd tr?ining ?pplies to ?ll levels of the org?niz?tion,
from the lowest to the highest.
institute le?dership: Disney strongly believes in the f?ct th?t le?dership
comes from the knowledge, expertise ?nd interperson?l skills, not the ?uthority.
the fe?r: Disneyl?nd resolves this issue
by identifying ?nd filling the g?ps in communic?tion, culture ?nd tr?ining.
b?rriers between st?ff ?re?s: ?t Disneyl?nd everyone must work ?s ? te?m tow?rd
? common go?l. Te?mwork is ?n imper?tive in modern m?n?gement.
slog?ns, exhort?tions ?nd t?rgets for the workforce: Disney effectively elimin?tes
unre?listic t?rgets for its workforce in order to ensure high level of qu?lity.
numeric?l quot?s for workers ?nd numeric?l go?ls for m?n?gement: Disney h?s
elimin?ted ?ll numeric?l quot?s ?s they ?re not c?p?ble of considering the st?tistic?l
f?ctors th?t ?ffect ?ll workers. Not ?ll workers m?y be ?bove ?ver?ge; not ?ll
th?t prevent st?ff pride in the work experience: ?t Disneyl?nd it is the
responsibility of supervisors to p?ss the volume ?nd qu?lity end result, ?nd
remove the b?rriers th?t prevent people from the opportunity to be proud of
their work (Holt, 2012).
energetic tr?ining progr?m ?nd self-improvement for the st?ff: Disneyl?nd
provides ?ll of its c?st members ?dequ?te ?nd effective tr?ining, the results
of the tr?ining m?y not m?nifest immedi?tely, but often h?ve import?nt effects
in the long run. Self-improvement is ? progressive t?sk of self-development ?t
M?ke work ?ll
st?ff of the comp?ny to ?chieve tr?nsform?tion: ?t Disneyl?nd ?ll the st?ff
members ?re committed to the highest levels ?s they underst?nd th?t tr?nsform?tion
is necess?ry (Sheikh, 2016).
CUSTOMER SERVICE IMPROVEMENTS ?T DISNEYL?ND
Joseph expl?ined qu?lity ?s
suit?bility for use in terms of design, sh?ping, ?v?il?bility, security ?nd pr?ctic?l
use ?nd is b?sed on systems ?nd techniques for solving problems (Juran, 1998). Jur?n focused his ?ttention
on the m?n?gement view ?nd top-down methods or techniques r?ther th?n pride or
s?tisf?ction of the worker, ? f?ctor th?t differenti?tes Joseph from the
philosophy of Deming.
Thus, Disneyl?nd h?s ?dopted
the me?sures proposed Joseph through which the whole st?ff members ?t Disneyl?nd
?re tre?ted ?s c?st members ?nd ?ll the senior m?n?gers ?re involved in
steering down the qu?lity system ?t Disney L?nd. ?t Disneyl?nd the qu?lity
objective h?s now become the p?rt of the business pl?n of the comp?ny (Anser Plouis, 2016).
Disney h?s successfully
implemented the Ju?n Trilogy model with the ?im of effective m?n?gement of tot?l
qu?lity ?t the p?rk. Disneyl?nd utilizes the following processes in order to
ensure th?t high level of customer service is ?lw?ys m?int?ined through (Sheikh, 2016):
Qu?lity Pl?nning: Under this
?ctivity Disney provides tr?ining ?nd development to its st?ff member to ensure
th?t the services provided by them meet the customer requirements. In order to ?chieve
this go?ls following ?re the ?ctivities th?t ?re performed by Disney L?nd.
qu?lity services to the customer
process c?p?ble of ensuring ? high qu?lity of service to e?ch ?nd every
individu?l visiting Disneyl?nd
Qu?lity Control: This is ?n
?dministr?tive process, which includes the following steps:
the current process perform?nce
perform?nce with qu?lity go?ls (?ctu?l versus st?nd?rd)
Qu?lity Improvement: In the
list of priorities for Disneyl?nd improving qu?lity occupies first pl?ce. In
this sense, it h?s developed ? structured propos?l, which includes ? list of
non-deleg?ble responsibilities for senior executives:
infr?structure: institute ? qu?lity ?dvice; select improvement projects; design?te
equipment; providing f?cilit?tors.
on how to provide qu?lity service to the customer
qu?lity progress regul?rly
Rew?rd ?nd ?ppreci?te
the winning te?ms
the rew?rd system to ?cceler?te the p?ce of improvement
the momentum to exp?nd the business to include the go?ls of qu?lity improvement
It is ? revolution?ry ?ppro?ch
to me?suring ?nd improving m?n?gement qu?lity h?s become ? st?nd?rd method for
the m?n?gement of qu?lity ?t Disneyl?nd, ?s it helps the comp?ny to meet the
needs of customers ?nd providing high qu?lity of service (James R. Evans, 2013). There ?re sever?l
technique used by Disneyl?nd under this TQM technique which includes; Design,
communic?tion, tr?ining, production, m?n?gement, losses, etc. However, the m?n?gement
of Disneyl?nd still believes th?t the possibilities for improvement ?nd cost s?vings
?re enormous, but the Six Sigm? process requires commitment of time, t?lent,
dedic?tion, persistence ?nd, of course, fin?nci?l investment. Following ?re
some of the principles of Six Sigm? th?t ?re being followed by Disneyl?nd (Sheikh, 2016).
eng?ged from top to bottom. ?t Disneyl?nd this methodology involves ? ch?nge in
how to conduct oper?tions ?nd m?ke decisions. The str?tegy is supported ?nd
committed from the highest levels of m?n?gement to the bottom level of
is b?sed on ? m?n?gement structure th?t includes full-time st?ff. Disneyl?nd m?nifests
the commitment to Six Sigm? by cre?ting ? m?n?gement structure th?t integr?tes
business le?ders, projects, experts ?nd f?cilit?tors.
E?ch of the
?ctors in the Six Sigm? progr?m requires specific tr?ining workouts. Disneyl?nd
provides ?ll of its employees tr?ining through different tr?ining progr?ms ?nd
ensures th?t the employees must t?ke extensive tr?ining, known ?s curriculum of
? bl?ck belt.
?nd focused on processes. Disneyl?nd seeks th?t ?ll processes meet customer
requirements ?nd qu?lity st?nd?rds ?nd meet the perform?nce st?nd?rds of Six
?t Disneyl?nd the Six Sigm?
progr?ms ?re b?sed on ?n intense policy of communic?tion between ?ll members ?nd
dep?rtments within the org?niz?tion ?nd outside the org?niz?tion (Ingelson, 2012). This ensures th?t ?ll
the employees ?re well ?w?re of the current h?ppening within the org?niz?tion ?nd
?re connected with the ch?nges th?t ?re being m?de in the org?niz?tion.
Disneyl?nd h?s implemented ?
highly effective ?nd efficient benchm?rking system for rew?rding ?nd ?ppr?ising
the perform?nce of its employees. Disneyl?nd does not rew?rd b?sed on the
seniority of the r?nks within the comp?ny, but the employees ?re rew?rded b?sed
on the number of projects th?t he or she h?s undert?ken (Sheikh, 2016).
?long, with th?t Disneyl?nd ?lso conducted extern?l ?nd intern?l benchm?rking
progr?ms with the ?im of ev?lu?ting the perform?nce of its c?st members in
order to effectively h?nd the st?ff members which ?re the most essenti?l ?ssets
Thus, in the end it could be
concluded th?t the comp?nies like Disney th?t ?re ?pplying Tot?l Qu?lity M?n?gement
by est?blishing close rel?tionship with its employees ?nd f?cilit?ting them
through continuous tr?ining ?nd development to ensure the provision of high qu?lity
of products ?nd services to the customer visiting the Disneyl?nd will be the
one to succeed, ?nd gener?te higher profits. ? high level of customer s?tisf?ction
c?n only be ?chieved through providing them with high qu?lity of c?re ?nd m?int?ining
strong st?nd?rds which ?re something th?t Disney h?ve been doing successfully
for ye?rs. Thus, the success of the Disneyl?nd seems to correl?te with the ?bility
of Disney to ?dhere to its vision ?nd promoting its core v?lues which is high
level of service to customers through its employees.