Introduction with an individual being intrinsically motivated, comes


How does motivation play a role in
a childcare worker being driven in the workplace?  An individual being a prompt, or a driven
worker has long been linked to the personal and environmental factors that they
use to motivate themselves. Motivation is the reason for people’s actions, desires,
and needs. Motivation is also what causes us to behave a certain way, or what
causes a person to want to repeat a behavior.  It’s the crucial element in setting and
attaining goals. This paper will analyze the different types of motivation or
motivators and how it applies within the childcare field and how these factors
causes their employees to perform at their best. Motivation can be categorized
in two different ways being, which are Intrinsic and Extrinsic.

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Intrinsic Motivation
and Performance


Intrinsic Motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent
satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence (Ryan& Deci,
2000). In other words, it refers to the individual actions that is driven by
one’s own internal logic. Intrinsic motivation and performing well at your
job can go hand in hand because normally when a person chose to put forth their
best effort in an activity, it is normally related to a personal goal that has
already been set which needs to be achieved or mastered. This can be viewed as
mastery goal orientations in relation to an individual’s performance theory
because this is defined as the “desire to develop, attain, or demonstrate
competence at an activity” (Cerasoli & Ford, 2014,
p. 268). Thus, this results in intrinsic motivation to need a relax environment
for performance to be in relation of mastery goals because mastery goals allow intrinsic
motivation to bring about additional purpose (Cerasoli & Ford, 2014). Therefore,
think about an actor and when they chose to excel at their craft they do it
because they love that feeling of pleasure or satisfaction of knowing that they
got the viewers to evoke some form of emotion while viewing their art. Being
that this craft requires real skills it may initiate what
is called performance-contingent rewards. Performance- contingent rewards are
rewards that relies on performance which is given when one excels above a
specified level of performance, standard, or some defined criterion (Hendijani, et al., 2016). As you can see along with an
individual being intrinsically motivated, comes many factors that can lead that
individual to want to continually perform at their best.


Extrinsic Motivation and Performance

Extrinsic Motivation reveals a
reason to participate in an action to an end rather than an end in itself
(Makki & Abid, 2017, p.38). Therefore, extrinsic motivation can be viewed
as behavior that is driven by external factors or environment such as money,
praise, fame, grades, reputation. For example, whenever a person is at work and
starts to enhance their performance because they have the goal in mind for a
promotion they are usually extrinsically motivated. “A
defining characteristic of labor is that it is done only for extrinsic reward,
whether that reward be pay for an employee, the price at which a self-employed
producer can sell his product, or the use of the product itself for a
subsistence producer” (Himmelweitp,1999, p.28). Extrinsic motivation can look
at as a need that individual been requiring or wanting to fulfil for their
personal gain or well-being. “Based on expectancy-value theories, motivation
toward a task is the result of effort-outcome expectancy (i.e., the perceived
probability of success) and the valence or desirability of the outcome (i.e.,
the attractiveness of the outcome). External rewards can improve overall
motivation and performance by enhancing the subjective probability of success
(i.e., rising expectancy; and by increasing the valence or desirability of the
goal upon which the reward is contingent. From the reinforcement theory
perspective, rewards can control behavior and can be used to influence behavior
in a specific direction. Based on agency theory, individuals are
self-interested, rational, and utility-maximizing. They are unwilling to exert
effort for a goal that does not contribute to their economic well-being.
Therefore, individuals choose and pursue goals that maximize their utility.
Performance-contingent rewards increase individuals’ utilities and are more
desirable compared to no reward or noncontingent reward conditions” (Hendijani,
et al., 2016, p. 254). The idea of being extrinsically motivated in relation to
performance seems to be that the idea to perform well only comes from person
own self attainments which in turn some looks to be selfish. In the article “The Interrelationship of Intrinsic and
Extrinsic Motivation” by Jerry Dermer about an experiment designed by
Hackman and Porter and while they were assessing extrinsic rewards based on
good budget performance, the results displayed that in seven statement budget
performance was connected to fulfillment of seven extrinsic rewards. Which were
“recognition, increased responsibility, advancement, better supervisory
relations, better peer relations, increased pay, and job security” (Dermer,
1975, p.126). Even though extrinsic motivation may get an individual to
originally perform a task it may find it hard to therefore keep that salience
in that activity.


Motivation and
Childcare Workers


childcare can be dated back as far 1700s and still today can be categorized as
an important institution that helps grow and enhance the individuals for
society from a tender age. “The roots of child and youth care work as a
distinct field in North America have been traced through the development of
institutional homes of the 1700s, camps and clubs of the early 1900s following
the industrial revolution and growing immigration, and contexts of residential
care, hospitals, and juvenile justice programs. It is ”within these
orphanages, industrial and training schools, residential schools, and
community-based recreational services that child and youth care was born in
North America” (Charles & Garfat, 2009, p. 19). There are four examples
demonstrates the needs and opportunities for these communities becoming
enlightened:  YMCA (1850s), Juvenile
courts (1890s), Boys and Girls Clubs (1900s), Boy and Girl Scouts (1910s),
(Freeman, 2013, p. 101). Childcare worker may not be viewed as a fun or easy
job. These workers are often underpaid, overworked, and always having to face
scrutiny. So, it is not to any surprise that they are often being asked why do
you do this job? Being that the childcare field is mostly populated by female
workers, research has shown that female is more intrinsically motivated. In the
article “Influence of Intrinsic and
Extrinsic Motivation on Employee’s Task Performance” After conducting their
research and using different method to see the correlation between extrinsic and
intrinsic motivation and task performance when the results were evaluated, and they
looked at the mean, standard deviation, and t value for scores of genders on
intrinsic motivation the results showed that female was more intrinsically
motivated as to males (Makki & Abid, p. 38). Individuals who normally
perform such work do not normally do it is fun or because it provides great
incentives but rather because it fulfills something internally that may have needed
to be met. In the report “Why People
Choose to Be Residential Child Care Workers” Tally Moses talks about
looking at the initial motivation behind why people look for employment as a
resident childcare worker. When asked participants of this study what made them
do this type of work the popular response involved, “a quest for providing
socially meaningful work that contributes to tomorrow’s generation or society
as whole” (Moses, 2000, p.118). When ask Debbie Chapman who works at Bright
Horizons an early education and preschool child care provider, what motivates
her to perform her task. She replied “To conquer the job and the obstacles that
may come with it. The follow question to that was, what type of feeling do it
give to you? Mrs. Chapman then responded financial freedom, so in her instance
both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation comes to play when performing her task
at the best of her ability. It is evident that there are many different factors
that contributes to a childcare worker being motivated to perform well at their
jobs. For example, “Cultivating a thriving
childcare workforce: a theory-driven qualitative analysis” when it was
examine  to see what work conditions were
most salient for childcare providers 
and  job resources enhance
childcare experiences on the job, the responses for salience had to do with
decision-making discretion, information sharing, climate of trust and respect
and the for resources were knowledge gained, positive meaning( had to do with
the meaning attributed to their works), positive emotions. In the positive
emotions one of the participants equated the entirety of the as “To sum it up,
it’s the most stressful job that you’ll ever love, with the biggest rewards!” (Travis,
et. al., 2014, p. 332-335). Also, in the childcare field the
differences of roles, titles, work environment or even the employees home structure
are some factors that would tend to influence how they perform their job. For example,
for like a company like Bright Horizons who has businesses located throughout many
different locations it seems to be an normal trend when staff in different locations
are asked about their feelings toward their jobs to get many diverse responses.
 In the childcare field the idea of freedom
or self-sufficiency seems to place a big role in childcare workers being
pleased in their profession. “Where
values collide: motivation and role conflict in child and adult protective
services” talks about interviews that were conducted with child and
protective service workers about the nature of their jobs and why they do it,
the findings were: “frontline workers found satisfaction in helping others, but
noted it was the gratitude of clients that was important in this regard. He
noted it not so much the nature of the work itself as the social reward of
client’s appreciation that workers found most gratifying” (Vinzant, 1988, p.
347). In the article, “Teacher education,
motivation, compensation, workplace support, and links to quality of
center-based child care and teachers’ intention to stay in the early childhood
profession” it spoke a study that looking at motivations for child care
work and these are the findings: “Providers were asked to rate on a scale from
(1) “definitely does not represent” to (5) “definitely represents” how well
each of the following questions describes their motivation for child care work:
(1) “my career or profession” (mean = 4.4; S.D. = 1.1); (2) “a stepping stone
to a related career or profession” (mean = 3.5; S.D. = 1.5); and (3) “a
personal calling” (mean = 4.5; S.D. = .8). The last question was designed
specifically for this study based on qualitative findings from another study of
provider motivation (Buell, Pfister, & Game-McCormick, 2002)” (Torquati,,
2007, p. 266).




conducting my research, I have come to notice that childcare workers are more
intrinsically motivated than extrinsically. These Individuals are driven based
on gaining a feeling of satisfaction and the feeling that they helped a person
life better whether it be through growth, environment, learning in general,
that’s what makes their job meaningful and worth it in the end. Also came to
conclude that a childcare worker motivation can therefore be both become
interrelated when it comes to whether they may be start off with either
intrinsic motivation and then end up completing the task extrinsically or vice
versa. Overall, there are many different factors that leads to the influencing
intrinsic or extrinsic motivation so whenever examining motivation in relation
to performance that must be taken into consideration.


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