In this scenario, first of all we

In
this scenario, first of all we have to identify the source and stop more
spillage using different physical methods. As the oil spillage is near sea port
so we have to move other ships to avoid explosion or fire. Then we have to move
the people living near the port to safe places.

Now
we have to apply bioremediation techniques to degrade the oil that has been
spilled in sea. Bioremediation is the use of natural microorganisms to degrade
contamination in an environment. Bioremediation for the use of oil spill
cleanup is either undergone by bio-augmentation or bio-stimulation.
Bio-augmentation is the addition of microorganisms that are capable of
degrading the spills. Bio-stimulation refers to the addition of nutrients to
aid the microorganisms in degrading the spills more effectively.

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Bio
stimulation is practiced when there is a population of microbes present
degrading the spill. By adding these nutrients in the proper concentrations,
the degrading microbes are capable of achieving their maximum growth rate and
hence the maximum rate of pollutant uptake. The important factor in achieving
successful bio stimulation is to keeping the concentration of nutrients present
for the microbes as long as possible. This becomes difficult when there are scenarios
where there is differences in densities, wave movements, and tidal influences.

Bio
augmentation is applied when the microbes already present are unable to degrade
the spills. Microorganisms are added that are capable of degrading the spills. There
are many different types of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms, with more
than 100 known species of bacteria, fungi, and yeast which are capable of
degrading compounds.

Bio augmentation is not used very often, since most
environments naturally contain hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms. Also the
addition of microorganisms often cause competition with the existing beneficial
microorganisms.

Example:

The use of bioremediation was proven to be effective
with the Exxon Valdez spill, and within 10 to 14 days after the application of
nutrients there was a noticeable difference in the reduction of oil on the
sites which had bio stimulation, compared to those which were not treated. This
showed that using bioremediation not only worked at cleaning up the oil, but it
also worked very quickly.

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