In a particular game. The second research

order to actually test whether e-sports is a traditional sports, certain tests
that have been created over the past years by some researchers will be used to
get to some core variables that have to be found in a sport to be considered a
sport. The first one is the Luschen and Nafziger test, it looks at which sports
are included and considered for the Olympic games. Nafziger concluded that
sport is something that is not a constant, it is changing, therefore sporting
competitions also have to be evolving and shouldn’t remain something archaic.
Three different elements were delineated in the study,  corporation, contest and association (Nafziger, 1988). When comparing those to the e-sports
industry all seem to be met. There is corporation between the teams and the
games, there is clear contest and there is association, by for example all
adhering to the same rules in a particular game. The second research on which e-sports
can be tested as a sport is that of Slusher, which also delineated certain
commonalities in sport. The first one is rules, there have to be rules for a
sport to function, those rules should also help to create an environment that
makes it appealing to play the sport (Slusher,
1973). Another commonality in sport according to Slusher is
participation in the sense that sport has a role to fill a need for activity.
Slusher also goes into the role of law in sports and the history between academics
and sport (Slusher, 1973). When comparing e-sports
to this, every game in e-sports have their own rules and those rules are also
made to make a certain game enjoyable. This can be clearly seen in the way that
a game ‘patches’ those patches can come out every few weeks or months to
rebalance the game state to make sure that it is still in a good position for
everyone. The question on activity is harder to answer, since this goes to the
core of what is an activity, since e-sports is less physical, however when
doing e-sports or even gaming in general there is a clear sense of doing an
activity. The third research was done by Michelman, his main component of sport
was explained as the public perception (Michelman,
2000). This means that if the public considers something a sport it should be a
sport. Regarding e-sports this is a very difficult point to make, since the
adoption of e-sports as a sport is depending on the country and generation (Michelman, 2000). Overall it seems however that e-sports
is at least definitely moving towards mainstream adoption since for example in
the USA the ESPN sports network has been showing e-sports for example and also
when taking into account the number and growth of e-sports this condition seems
also to be met. The fourth researcher is Cassman, he then used the scholar
Wasserman who had four different components of what a sport is, competition,
simple machines, objective scoring and large motor skills (Holden, 2017). Here is where e-sports gets into
trouble since it does not use any large motor skills (which is much more
defined than just physical activity) (Holden,
2017).  Also the classification
simple machines is something that is clearly not met in e-sports since in their
nature the defining act is happening in a virtual space where a complex machine
is needed for. There is however objective scoring with easy win conditions that
are not subjective in the games and again there is clear competition (Holden, 2017). Lakier looked at the distinction
between expressive arts and sports, first of all sports itself are not
expressive acts for the reason that the function is entertainment and not
education or politicization. There is athletic activity and the activity is
competitive (Lakier,2013). E-sports seem to
fit this description as well, again it is a competitive activity and not an
expressive act for entertainment purposes. Jenny looked at the work of Guttman
to conceptualize what a sport is, it will have to have, play, rules, clear
winner and loser and physical skill (Jenny, 2017).
In e-sports the players are motivated from a voluntary basis to perform the
activity so the condition of play is met, there are also clear rules and winner
and loser (Jenny, 2017). The only problem is
the conceptualization of physical activity and skill, it is unclear whether e-sports
fits this category since there is some level of physicality however this is not
the main part of e-sports. Jenny also looked at Suits, who said in sport there
are clear rules, it requires skill and physical skill, it needs to appeal to a
large audience and there needs to be some institutional structure which is also
stable with rules (Jenny, 2017).  These are mostly similar to previous
conditions of sport and here as well will e-sport meet most of them except the
physical aspect which is arguably not met, additionally the stability of the e-sport
structure is also not set in stone, since the industry is very young. Jackiw
defined sports as a physical activity which has a goal to create pleasure or
diversion and it has to involve skill and competition (Jackiw,
2014). E-sports definitely has skill as mentioned before there is a
clear difference between professionals and amateurs, there is competition and
it the purpose is to entertain (Jackiw, 2014).
Here again the physical activity is problematic and would depend on the concept
of physical skill used. The last set of conditions that can be looked at are
those that are included in the US code, general conditions on what a sport
might be can be delineated from there (Holden,
2017).  The rules and the
eligibility are being decided upon by a governing association. The actual play
and contest by teams should be publicly known and announced from beforehand (Holden, 2017).  E-sports has this governing association based
on the given game that is played as an e-sport and all the rosters, schedules
and competitions are announced prior to the given date.


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