In 1932 Hattie Caraway of Arkansas became

In
1932 Hattie Caraway of
Arkansas became the first woman elected to the Senate.192 Furthermore, in 1932 Amelia Earhart became the first woman to
fly solo across the Atlantic, taking her journey on the 5th anniversary of
Lindbergh’s solo Atlantic flight .193 She was awarded the National Geographic Society’s gold
medal from President Herbert Hoover, and Congress awarded her the Distinguished
Flying Cross.193 Later in 1932 she became the first woman to fly solo
nonstop coast to coast, and set the women’s nonstop transcontinental speed
record, flying 2,447.8 miles in 19 hours 5 minutes.193 In 1935 she became the first person to solo the 2,408-mile
distance across the Pacific between Honolulu and Oakland, California; this was
also the first flight where a civilian aircraft carried a two-way radio.193 Later in 1935, she became the first person to fly solo
from Los Angeles to Mexico City.193 Still later in 1935, she became the first person to fly
solo nonstop from Mexico City to Newark.193 In 1937 Amelia Earhart began a flight around the world but
vanished during it; her remains, effects, and plane have never been found.193 The first woman to fly solo around the world and return
home safely was the American amateur pilot Jerrie Mock, who did so in 1964.194 In 1933 Frances Perkins was appointed by
President Franklin Roosevelt as his Secretary of Labor, making her the first
woman to hold a job in a Presidential cabinet.195

However,
women also faced many challenges during this time. A National Education
Association survey showed that between 1930 and 1931, 63% of cities dismissed
female teachers as soon as they became married, and 77% did not hire married
women as teachers.196 Also, a survey of 1,500 cities from 1930 to 1931 found
that three-quarters of those cities did not employ married women for any jobs.197 In January 1932, Congress passed the Federal Economy Act
which stipulated that no two persons in the family could be working in
government service at the same time; three-fourths of employees discharged as a
result of this Act were women.196 However, during the Great Depression white women’s
unemployment rate was actually lower than that for men, because women were paid
less and because men would not take what they considered to be “women’s
jobs” such as clerical work or domestic service.198 Yet as a result of rising unemployment, white women’s
movement into professional and technical work slowed.198

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Birth
control activism was an important cause in the 1930s. In 1936 Margaret Sanger helped bring the case of
“United States v. One Package” to the U.S.

Circuit Court of Appeals.161 The decision in that case allowed physicians to legally
mail birth control devices and information; however, it applied only to New
York, Connecticut, and Vermont; birth control did not become legal for married
couples throughout the United States until the 1965 Supreme Court
decision Griswold v.

Connecticut, and did not become legal for unmarried couples
throughout the United States until the 1972 Supreme Court decision Eisenstadt v. Baird.161199200201 In 1937 The American Medical Association officially
recognized birth control as an integral part of medical practice and education,
and North Carolina became the first state to recognize birth control as a
public health measure and to provide contraceptive services to indigent mothers
through its public health program.199

In
1939 black singer Marian Anderson sang
on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, which was considered a milestone in the
civil rights movement.202 She had originally wanted to sing at Washington D.C.’s
largest venue, Constitution Hall, but The Daughters of the American Revolution
barred her from performing there because of her race.202 Due to this, Eleanor Roosevelt, who was then the First
Lady, resigned from the organization.202 This stands as one of the first actions taken by someone
in the White House to address the era’s racial inequality.202 Anderson performed at the White House three years prior in
1936, making her the first African-American performer to do so.202

Status of
women

Yet women still occupied a lower position than men in many sectors of
American life. In 

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