Human to the world. This archetype conceals

Human psychology is a
spectrum, it is not a series of islands. On one end, you have areas that
require human support, so this is when people are facing severe stress, severe
anxiety and depression. In the middle is what is called the human condition,
this consists of loneliness, happiness, connection and empathy, the human
condition is where we deal with sadness and betrayal and loss. These are the
things that happen to individuals as you grow up through life, essentially the
full spectrum of human emotion. Self-transcendence better known as the
development as spiritual beings, pushes the limits of psychology, transcendence
can be obtained through a form of spiritual or religious journey. To understand
this further this essay will draw upon, firstly Jung’s belief on accepting all
areas of his model of psyche. Secondly it shall discuss individuation and self-transcendence
and Lastly Holotropic breath work and how individuals access barriers which
lead to spiritual development and growth.


Jung supposes
that in order for one to develop and grow spiritually individuals need to
accept all areas of themselves, this can be seen through, Archetypes (Jung,
1947) are images and thoughts which have universal meanings across cultures
which may show up I dreams, literature, art or religion. Jung alleged that
archetypes are reflective of predispositions that once had survival value when
human beings evolved.

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recognizes a large number of archetypes but focused mainly on four archetypes;
persona, shadow, self and anima/animus, this essay will only draw on four. The “persona” otherwise known as “mask” is the version of
ourselves that we present to the world. This archetype conceals our real self
and Jung calls it the “conformity” archetype. Secondly the shadow is the
animalistic side of our personality, it is the source of both creative and
destructive energies. The archetype of “anima/ animus” reflect our biological
sex, Jung assumed that in males there is an unconscious feminine side and in
women there are masculine tendencies. Due to centuries of living together each
side manifests these attitudes and behaviors, this is ingrained in their
psyche. The last archetype “self”, according to Jung is the ultimate aim of all
persons. Individuals aim to achieve a state of self-hood.

 Jungian theory puts forward the ideology that
there is an unexplored self which he identifies in his book “The Undiscovered
Self”, he put forward the idea that the problems of the world currently are not
technical problems but in fact that they are attributed to “man’s progressive
alienation from his instinctual foundation”. Jung thought that in order for an
individual to develop and grow as a human being these archetypes that he
perceived as faces of who we are needed to be fully addressed.

Homosexuals and members
of the LGBTQ community are perceived as “the other” in Jung’s work he talks
about the spiritual development or lack of in homosexuals, Jung considered
(many) male homosexuals as “identified with the anima” he supposed that they
were in a state of more-or-less unending “possession” (Satinover, 2015). Consequently, he meant that these males have rejected an open
identification of masculinity, and have instead embraced a feminized identity,
the same is for female homosexuals. Essentially Jung considered that a
homosexual has been “possessed” by the archetype of the anima/animus and he considered
that they need to become aware of the “self” and understand that each of those
opposite genders embodies different feelings and actions. He believed this can
be done by evaluating himself, his behaviors, fantasies, moods and dreams (with
aid from others) and eventually his behavior and mental states over time are
consistent with the image of himself, Jung believed that through spiritual
development homosexuality was a problem that could be fixed.   

After discussing the animus and anima, I will
discuss now Maslow’s hierarchy’s of needs missing apex self-transcendence,
this. This section will cover how, the concept of self-transcendence is the
peak of spiritual growth and development in the human psychology spectrum it
will also draw upon Jung’s beliefs on self- transcendence. A journal article by
Henry J venter implied that self-transcendence in relation to occupational
psychology was attained by mangers and leaders of organizations who had reached
the peak of their spiritual development. He believed that “The self-transcended
leader is the person who breaks free from organizational culture that focuses
only on results at-all-cost and redefines their role and redirects their
actions to include a distinct social and environmental focus” (Venter,2012) inferring a higher understanding where we become aware of not just your potential but
humanity’s potential at large, through self-transcendence you become aware of
“your ultimate truth and the unity of all things” (Venter,2012), this integrates well with is the
Jungian ideology of individuation which is self-transcendence.


The theory of
individuation is the keystone of Jung’s psychology. “Individuation is then
nothing but ego-centeredness and autoeroticism.”  (Jung 1954, para 432), here describes it as
process of self-realization, where we discover and experience the significance
and purpose of life; this is where we find oneself and become who we really

This is dependent
upon the interaction and fusion of Jung’s model of the psyche drawing upon conscious
and unconscious, personal and collective.


Conclusively, Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs required for individuals to reach all tiers of the hierarchy
before being able to self-actualize or self-transcend however when evaluating
Maslow’s hierarchy of need. It can be seen that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is
misguided and can only be applied to western education and business practices
as the hierarchy is based in animalist instincts which does not align it with
spirituality and religion. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs does not allow individuals
to effectively transcend as genuine self- transcendence requires divine
intervention and assistance (Pfeifer, A. A.1998). This theory links to the idea
of spirituality as Jung theory of individuation draws upon self- awareness and

After drawing upon two theoretical
motivations of spirituality, it would be wise to consider a form of Cognitive behavioral
therapy (CBT) approach to transpersonal psychology which is the Holotropic
model of Stan Grof. Initially Grof used Psychedelic drugs and holotropic
breathe work to comprehend therapeutic potential. Grof’s work included sensory alterations
where participants emotionally relived past experience, traumas, death and
rebirth. Grof’s work drew upon a variety of psychic, archetypes and mystical

According to Grof’s
ideologies, we had three domains of the psyche which explains these
experiences. (Daniels. M,2005). Holotropic breathing is done in groups, it
allows the flow of energies, it uses hyperventilation, music and
process-oriented body work that open the boundaries of empirical consciousness as
the psychodynamic barriers are reduced which allows the individuals in release
import mental material. The goal of holotropic breath-work is all about
trusting your inner process and wisdom.  Holotropic
breathing draws on self-transcendence as it allows insights of human beings,
that have gone beyond everyday consciousness are extraordinarily significant
for the understanding of being and becoming.

allows altered states of consciousness which can be achieved through the
exercises listed above. However, there also exist so called spontaneous
openings of the consciousness. They can for instance be found in overwhelming
experiences of nature, peak experiences as well as states of flow. Even severe
crises can result in sudden inner openings. Especially interesting examples are
provided by near death experiences.

Jungian ideologies of
archetypes can analyze Grof’s holotropic breathing, as what Grof talks about
largely is essentially Jungian archetype of the shadow. Holotropic breathing is
a method used to reach spiritual growth through understanding, however it is
not a controlled experience. Therefore, a situation where an individual has
flash backs to suppressed experience which Jung identifies as the shadow could
be detrimental if their aim was not to seek self-transcendence through this avenue,
nonetheless it does not take away from the fact that holotropic breathing is a
transpersonal model that contributes to growth and development as a spiritual


To summarize the
arguments addressed throughout the course of this essay, it can clearly be
perceived that Jungian theories on the model of the psyche fully grasps the quintessential
explanation of the transpersonal experience of development and growth.  Jungian theories have been perceived as new
age mystical speculation and not scientific enough to contribute to psychology,
however when defining transpersonal psychology, it can be identified that Jung’s
theory encompasses the full scope of human psychology and in comparison, to the
theories listed above it most effectively relates to how people develop as
spiritual beings.  


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